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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 10

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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  unit 10

  1.Ontology

  Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.

  1.本体论

  本体论,又译存在论、存有论,它是形而上学的一个基本分支,本体论主要探讨存有本身,即一切现实事物的基本特征。有的哲学家,如柏拉图学派认为:任何一个名词都对应着一个实际存在;另外一些哲学家则主张有一些名词并不代表存在的实体,而只代表一种集合的概念,包括事物或事件,也有抽象的,由人类思维产生的事物。例如“社团”就代表一群具有同一性质的人组成的集合;“几何”就代表一种特殊知识的集合等。

  2.Anarchy

  Anarchy refers to a society without a publicly enforced government. When used in the negative sense, anarchy implies political disorder or lawlessness within a society. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his 1840 treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy, anarchism, which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations. Many anarchists, like Anselme Bellegarrigue, have complained that "[v]ulgar error has taken ‘anarchy' to be synonymous with ‘civil war.'"

  2.无政府状态

  无政府状态一词源于希腊文,原意指无执政官之状态,现常指:缺乏基础建设,缺乏法律保障人权,治安败坏,反社会人格的温床,没有货币机制交易生活必需品,只能以物易物的一种状态。

  3.Anarchism

  Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system.

  3.无政府主义

  无政府主义,又译作安那其主义,是一系列政治哲学思想。其目的在于提升个人自由及废除政府当局与所有的政府管理机构。无政府主义包含了众多哲学体系和社会运动实践。它的基本立场是反对包括政府在内的一切统治和权威,提倡个体之间的自助关系,关注个体的自由和平等;其政治诉求是消除政府以及社会上或经济上的任何独裁统治关系。对大多数无政府主义者而言,“无政府”一词并不代表混乱、虚无、或道德沦丧的状态,而是一种由自由的个体自愿结合,以建立互助、自治、反独裁主义的和谐社会。庄子被认为是最早的无政府主义者。

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