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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 15

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  unit 15

  1.Rational choice theory

  Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior. Rationality, interpreted as "wanting more rather than less of a good", is widely used as an assumption of the behavior of individuals in microeconomic models and analysis and appears in almost all economics textbook treatments of human decision-making. It is also central to some of modern political science, sociology, and philosophy. It attaches "wanting more" to instrumental rationality, which involves seeking the most cost-effective means to achieve a specific goal without reflecting on the worthiness of that goal. Gary Becker was an early proponent of applying rational actor models more widely. He won the 1992 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his studies of discrimination, crime, and human capital.

  1.理性选择理论

  理性选择理论,又称为选择理论、理性行为理论,对于社会与经济行为的一种概念模型,以理性来解释每个人类行为的背后原因。这个理论是个体经济学背后的重要依据。在这边的理性,是指能够分析、比较各种选择的利益与效用,之后对于较高的效用与利益显示出偏好,并作为行为的根据,属于一种工具理性。

  2.Classical liberalism

  Classical liberalism is a political philosophy and ideology belonging to liberalism in which primary emphasis is placed on securing the freedom of the individual by limiting the power of the government. The philosophy emerged as a response to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization in the 19th century in Europe and the United States. It advocates civil liberties with a limited government under the rule of law, private property rights, and belief in laissez-faire economic liberalism. Classical liberalism is built on ideas that had already arisen by the end of the 18th century, including ideas of Adam Smith, John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo. Its greatest expression as a political (as well as economic) philosophy in the 19th century was in the works of John Stuart Mill. It drew on a psychological understanding of individual liberty, natural law, utilitarianism, and a belief in progress.

  2.古典自由主义

  古典自由主义是一种支持个人先于国家存在的政治哲学,强调个人的权利、私有财产,并主张自由放任的经济政策,认为政府存在的目的仅在于保护每个个体的自由。古典自由主义发源于17世纪和18世纪,也因此,它通常被视为由于工业革命和随后的资本主义体制而产生的一种意识形态。言论自由、信仰自由、思想自由、自我负责,和自由市场等概念最先也是由古典自由主义所提出,后来才陆续被其他政治意识形态所采纳。古典自由主义反对当时绝大多数较早期的政治学说,例如君权神授说、世袭制度和国教制度,强调个人的自由、理性、正义和宽容。美国革命和法国大革命都受到了古典自由主义的影响。

  3.Decentralization

  Decentralization (or decentralisation) is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority. While centralization, especially in the governmental sphere, is widely studied and practiced, there is no common definition or understanding of decentralization. The meaning of decentralization may vary in part because of the different ways it is applied. Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics and technology.

  3.权力分散

  权力分散特指职权在两个公法法人之间的转移。更一般地说,可以区分“领土权”分散,即行政区间的权力分散;及“技术性”权力分散,指具有公法法人资格的公共法人团体间的职权转移。


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