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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 16

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  unit 16

  1.Class conflict

  Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. However, the discovery of the existence of class struggle is not the product of their theories; their theories can instead be seen as a response to the existence of class struggles.

  1.阶级斗争

  阶级斗争指对抗阶级之间的对立和斗争。是根本利益对立的阶级之间相互冲突的表现,是解决对立阶级之间矛盾的基本手段。在于不同阶级的经济地位和物质利益的对立。一切阶级斗争,都是在物质利益即经济利益互相对立和冲突的基础上发生的,归根到底也都是围绕着物质利益而进行的。在阶级社会里,阶级斗争首先在各个社会形态的两大基本阶级之间展开,如奴隶社会奴隶阶级和奴隶主阶级的斗争,封建社会农民阶级和地主阶级的斗争,资本主义社会无产阶级和资产阶级的斗争。

  2.Value

  A personal value is absolute or relative and ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based.

  2.价值观

  通俗的说,价值观就是指人、动物、书、文化对客观事物(包括人、事、物)的价值认识的排列,是动物就会有价值观,就会有价值排列。反价值观同样存在。价值观也是可变的。不管你承认不承认,价值观都存在着,它有最大价值、第二价值、第三价值、第四价值……一直排列下去,比如有人认为爱情比钱有价值,有人认为钱比爱情有价值。

  3.subjective theory of value(STV)

  The subjective theory of value is a theory of value which advances the idea that the value of a good is not determined by any inherent property of the good, nor by the amount of labor required to produce the good, but instead value is determined by the importance an acting individual places on a good for the achievement of their desired ends. This theory is one of the core concepts of the Austrian School of Economics. While the modern version of this theory was discovered independently and nearly simultaneously by William Stanley Jevons, Léon Walras, and Carl Menger in the late 19th century it had in fact been advanced in the Middle Ages and Renaissance but did not gain widespread acceptance at that time.

  3.主观价值理论

  主观价值理论是经济学的价值理论,认为产品和服务本身并没有经济的价值,而是由于个人对它们的需求才有价值存在。而这些价值是依据购买者肯为此付出多少代价(如货币)来计算的。由于世界上每个人都有不同的需求和情况,因此,所谓“正确”的经济价值或价格在客观上是不存在的。


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