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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 19

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  unit 19

  1.Autonomous administrative division

  An autonomous administrative division is an administrative division of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority. Typically it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency and/or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies.

  1.自治地方

  自治地方(自治体)是国家政治制度的一种,多为第一级地方政权,也可为最基层的居民自治组织,相对于中央集权制来说,属于地方分权的概念。世界上很多国家依据其政治制度的不同,不同程度地在全境、局部地区如少数民族聚居地实行自治地方制度;如很多国家的海外属地和领地具备高度自治的权力,并发展为有别于母国的政治实体。

  2.Dominion

  Dominions were autonomous polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century. They included Canada, Australia, Pakistan, India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire" and, in the decades afterward, the dominions each became fully sovereign from the United Kingdom. Those that became sovereign constitutional monarchies within the Commonwealth of Nations and maintained as their own the same royal house and royal succession from before full sovereignty became known after the year 1953 as Commonwealth realms.Earlier usage of "dominion" to refer to a particular territory dates back to the 16th century and was sometimes used to describe Wales from 1535 to around 1800.

  2.自治领

  自治领是大英帝国殖民地制度下一个特殊的国家体制,可说是殖民地步向独立的最后一步。19世纪,所有实行自治或半自治的英国殖民地,尤其那些已具有自身宪政体制的,如加拿大、澳洲等,都称为自治领。它们都是由直辖殖民地(Crown Colony)或自治殖民地(Self-Governing Colony)进化为自治领。

  3.Autonomous prefectures of China

  Autonomous prefectures are one type of autonomous areas of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities. All autonomous prefectures are mostly dominated, in population, by the Han Chinese. The official name of an autonomous prefecture includes the most dominant minority in that region, sometimes two, rarely three. For example, a Kazakh (Kazak in official naming system) prefecture may be called Kazak Zizhizhou. Like all other prefectural level divisions, autonomous prefectures are divided into county level divisions. There is one exception: Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture contains two prefectures of its own. Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, autonomous prefectures cannot be abolished.

  3.自治州

  自治州,是一种行政区划名称。在中华人民共和国境内,自治州为民族自治地方,地位介于省一级与县一级之间,属于地级行政区,为第二级地方行政单位。按照宪法的规定,民族自治地方享受很高的自我管理权利。中国大陆设立自治州的有省和自治区。自治州管辖的县级行政区为县、自治县、县级市。至2012年末,中国大陆共有30个自治州。民族自治州通常亦简称为“州”,如延边朝鲜族自治州简称“延边州”。


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