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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 22

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月01日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 22

  英语单词讲解 unit 22

  1.Liberal democracy

  Liberal democracy(also constitutional democracy)is a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism, i.e. protecting the rights of the individual, which are generally enshrined in law.It is characterised by fair, free, and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, and political freedoms for all persons.

  1.宪政民主

  宪政民主是一种由许多国家采用的民主制度,而宪政也是民主体制的基础之一。现代的宪政民主制是在英国光荣革命与美国独立建国之后逐渐成形,早期主要实行于西欧国家,后来渐由中欧与东欧国家效仿。此外美国宪政民主的某些细节,如联邦制、分权与司法审查等制度,也是一些国家,如二次大战之后日本与德国在制定宪法时所吸取的对象之一。

  2.Trade barriers

  Trade barriers are government-induced restrictions on international trade. The barriers can take many forms, including the following:Tariffs、Non-tariff barriers to trade、Import licenses、Export licenses、Import quotas、Subsidies、Voluntary Export Restraints、Local content requirements、Embargo、Currency devaluation、Trade restriction etc.

  2.贸易壁垒

  贸易壁垒,或贸易障碍是一些国家阻止国际贸易的政府政策或规则,可以各种不同形式出现。贸易壁垒包括:货物税、进口关税、贸易配额限制、在地生产者补贴政策、进口许可证、出口许可证、反倾销税、其他非关税的贸易壁垒。

  3.Non-tariff barriers to trade,NTB

  Non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) are trade barriers that restrict imports, but are unlike the usual form of a tariff. Some common examples of NTB's are anti-dumping measures and countervailing duties, which, although called non-tariff barriers, have the effect of tariffs once they are enacted.

  3.非关税壁垒

  非关税壁垒也作非关税贸易壁垒、非关税措施。指一个国家通过关税之外的方法控制对外贸易,达到在一定程度上减少进口的目的。通过这些手段可以起到贸易保护的作用,但也会使本国消费者蒙受损失。


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