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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 23

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月01日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 23

  英语单词讲解 unit 23

  1.Free Trade

  Free trade is a policy in international markets in which governments do not restrict imports or exports. Free trade is exemplified by the European Union / European Economic Area and the North American Free Trade Agreement, which have established open markets. Most nations are today members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) multilateral trade agreements. However, most governments still impose some protectionist policies that are intended to support local employment, such as applying tariffs to imports or subsidies to exports. Governments may also restrict free trade to limit exports of natural resources. Other barriers that may hinder trade include import quotas, taxes and non-tariff barriers, such as regulatory legislation.

  1.自由贸易

  自由贸易是指国与国之间免关税的货物及服务流通,与贸易保护主义相反;自由贸易也是全球化的主体。自由贸易在经济学上的概念包括免关税及其他贸易壁垒例如进口配额等的国际贸易及服务;劳工及资金在国与国之间的自由流动;无保护本国当地企业,产品及生产因素等的法例、政策、补贴及税项等;无政府对产权的特别保障等,所以有可能引致大型组织垄断市场经济。

  2.Customsunion

  A customs union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. The participant countries set up common external trade policy, but in some cases they use different import quotas. Common competition policy is also helpful to avoid competition deficiency.

  2.关税同盟

  关税同盟是指两个或两个以上国家缔结协定,建立统一的关境,在统一关境内缔约国相互间减让或取消关税,对从关境以外的国家或地区的商品进口则实行共同的关税税率和外贸政策[1] 。关税同盟从欧洲开始,是经济一体化的组织形式之一。对内实行减免关税和贸易限制,商品自由流动;对外实行统一的关税和对外贸易政策。关税同盟有两种经济效应,静态效应和动态效应。

  3.Duty

  In economics, a duty is a kind of tax levied by a state. It is often associated with customs, in which context they are also known as tariffs or dues. The term is often used to describe a tax on certain items purchased abroad.[1] Properly, a duty differs from a tax in being levied on specific commodities, financial transactions, estates, etc. rather than on individuals. Duties may be import duties, excise duties, stamp duties, death or succession duties, etc.; but not such direct impositions as personal income taxes.

  3.关税

  关税,是指国家授权海关对出入关境的货物和物品征收的一种税。关税在各国一般属于国家最高行政单位指定税率的高级税种,对于对外贸易发达的国家而言,关税往往是国家税收乃至国家财政的主要收入。


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