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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 27

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月02日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 27

  英语单词讲解 unit 27

  1.Energy crisis

  An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In popular literature though, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place, particularly those that supply national electricity grids or serve as fuel for vehicles. There has been an enormous increase in the global demand for energy in recent years as a result of industrial development and population growth. Since the early 2000s the demand for energy, especially from liquid fuels, and limits on the rate of fuel production has created such a bottleneck leading to the current energy crisis.

  1.能源危机

  能源危机是指因为能源供应短缺或是价格上涨而影响经济,通常涉及到石油,电力或其他自然资源的短缺。能源危机通常会使得经济休克。很多突如其来的经济衰退通常就是由能源危机引起的。事实上,电力的生产价格的上涨导致生产成本的增加。汽车或其他交通工具所使用的石油产品价格的上涨降低了消费者的信心和增加了他们的开销。

  2.Uruguay Round

  The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), spanning from 1986 to 1994 and embracing 123 countries as "contracting parties". The Round led to the creation of the World Trade Organization, with GATT remaining as an integral part of the WTO agreements. The broad mandate of the Round had been to extend GATT trade rules to areas previously exempted as too difficult to liberalize (agriculture, textiles) and increasingly important new areas previously not included (trade in services, intellectual property, investment policy trade distortions). The Round came into effect in 1995 with deadlines ending in 2000 (2004 in the case of developing country contracting parties) under the administrative direction of the newly created World Trade Organization (WTO).

  2.乌拉圭回合

  乌拉圭回合,是关税及贸易总协定(简称“关贸总协定”)的国际商讨中,最近一次也是最重要的一次国际协定,历时7年半(从1986年9月至1994年4月),参与各方于1994年签订了马拉喀什协议,并于次年(1995年)成立世界贸易组织(WTO)。乌拉圭回合的讨论涉及以下领域:1)基础电信;2)金融服务;3)农业;4)服务。

  3.Surplus value

  Surplus value is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. Marx did not himself invent the term, he developed the concept. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx's use of this concept is different, because for Marx, the Mehrwert refers to the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital. Hence, Marx's use of Mehrwert has always been translated as "surplus value", distinguishing it from "value-added". According to Marx's theory, surplus value is equal to the new value created by workers in excess of their own labour-cost, which is appropriated by the capitalist as profit when products are sold.

  3.剩余价值

  剩余价值根据马克思主义理论是指剥削自劳动者劳动价值中的利润(劳动价值和工资之间的差异),即“劳动者创造的被资产阶级无偿占有的劳动”。关于剩余价值,社会主义国家按照马克思主义的观点认为,剩余价值应该归无产阶级所有。


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