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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 31

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月03日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 31

  英语单词讲解 unit 31

  1.Market economy

  A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system utilizing voluntary exchange. The major defining characteristic of a market economy is that decisions on investment and the allocation of producer goods are mainly made through markets.

  1.市场经济

  市场经济,又称自由市场经济,是一种经济体系,在这种体系下产品和服务的生产及销售完全由自由市场的自由价格机制所引导,而不是像计划经济一般由国家所引导。市场经济也被用作资本主义的同义词,但是绝大多数的社会主义国家也实行了市场经济。

  2.Mixed economy

  A mixed economy is an economic system in which both the private sector and state direct the economy, reflecting characteristics of both market economies and planned economies. Most mixed economies can be described as market economies with strong regulatory oversight and governmental provision of public goods. Some mixed economies also feature a variety of state-run enterprises.

  2.混合经济

  混合经济体系是指混合了传统经济体系、计划经济体系以及市场经济体系的经济体系,以解决三个基本的经济问题:生产什么、怎样生产、为谁生产。建立于混合经济上的国家称之为混合政治经济国家。主张对市场进行适度的政府干预。

  3.Urbanization

  Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas, and the ways in which society adapts to the change. It predominantly results in the physical growth of urban areas, be it horizontal or vertical. Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including geography, sociology, economics, urban planning, and public health. The phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time (e.g. the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns) or as an increase in that condition over time. So urbanization can be quantified either in terms of, say, the level of urban development relative to the overall population, or as the rate at which the urban proportion of the population is increasing.

  3.城市化

  城市化,又称城镇化、都市化,是指人口向城市聚集、城市规模扩大以及由此引起一系列经济社会变化的过程,其实质是经济结构、社会结构和空间结构的变迁。从经济结构变迁看,城市化过程是农业活动逐步向非农业活动转化和产业结构升级的过程;从社会结构变迁看,城市化是农村人口逐步转变为城镇人口以及城镇文化与生活方式和价值观念向农村扩散的过程;从空间结构变迁看,城市化是各种生产要素和产业活动向城镇地区聚集以及聚集后的再分散过程。在对城市化质量进行综合评价中,要考虑城市发展质量、城乡协调程度、城市化带来的文明成果以及为此付出社会、经济、环境等方面的代价。


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