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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 32

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月03日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 32

  英语单词讲解 unit 32

  1.Sustainable Development,SD

  Sustainable development is a road-map, an action plan, for achieving sustainability in any activity that uses resources and where immediate and intergenerational replication is demanded. As such, sustainable development is the organizing principle for sustaining finite resources necessary to provide for the needs of future generations of life on the planet. It is a process that envisions a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use continue to meet human needs without undermining the "integrity, stability and beauty" of natural biotic systems.

  1.可持续发展

  可持续发展,或永续发展,是指在保护环境的条件下既满足当代人的需求,又不损害后代人的需求的发展模式。“可持续发展”这个术语使用由布伦特兰委员会创造已成为最经常被引用的可持续发展的定义:“既能满足我们现今的需求,又不损害子孙后代能满足他们的需求的发展模式。”。

  2.Emerging Market

  Emerging markets refers to developing countries experiencing rapid growth and industrialization, with some characteristics of a developed market. This includes countries that may be developed markets in the future or were in the past.

  2.新兴市场

  新兴市场 (新兴经济体),是一个相对于西欧、北美多国,以及日本、澳大利亚、新西兰这类“成熟市场”国家而言的概念。新兴市场国家拥有成为成熟市场国家的潜力和部分条件,拥有一定的工业基础及一定程度上规范的商业市场机制。

  3.Market Failure

  In economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient. That is, there exists another conceivable outcome where a market participant may be made better-off without making someone else worse-off. (The outcome is not Pareto optimal.) Market failures can be viewed as scenarios where individuals' pursuit of pure self-interest leads to results that are not efficient – that can be improved upon from the societal point of view.

  3.市场失灵

  市场失灵为微观经济学术语,系立基于竞争市场的运作所发生问题的经济理论。传统自由经济学者认为,一个社会中的供给与需求可以构成完全竞争市场。而完全竞争的经济状态,系指生产者追求利益极大化,而消费者追求效用极大化,而达到所谓“帕累托效率”的状态,即没有任何人的效用受损,资源分配获得最佳效率,价格像一双看不见的手,主导市场内经济活动。


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