英语单词讲解 unit 42
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian historian,politician,diplomat,philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He was a founder of modern political science, and more specifically political ethics. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language. He was Secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his masterpiece, The Prince, after the Medici had recovered power and he no longer held a position of responsibility in Florence. His views on the importance of a strong ruler who was not afraid to be harsh with his subjects and enemies were most likely influenced by the Italian city-states, which due to a lack of unification were very vulnerable to other unified nation-states, such as France.
尼可罗·迪·贝纳尔多·德·马基亚维利(意大利语：Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli，1469年5月3日-1527年6月21日)是意大利的哲学家、历史学家、政治家、外交官。他是意大利文艺复兴时期的重要人物，他所著的《君主论》一书提出了现实主义的政治理论，另一著作《论李维》则提及了共和主义理论。
John J. Mearsheimer (born December 1947) is an American professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago. He is an international relations theorist. Known for his 2001 book on offensive neorealism, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, Mearsheimer is also known for co-authoring, with Stephen Walt, the New York Times Best Seller The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy (2007).
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is cited as the "father of modern economics" and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today.