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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 45

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月06日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 45

  英语单词讲解 unit 45

  1.Ernest Mason Satow

  Sir Ernest Mason Satow GCMG PC; (30 June 1843 – 26 August 1929), was a British scholar, diplomat and Japanologist. Satow is better known in Japan than in Britain or the other countries in which he served. He was a key figure in East Asia and Anglo-Japanese relations, particularly in Bakumatsu (1853–1867) and Meiji Era (1868–1912) Japan, and in China after the Boxer Rebellion, 1900-06. He also served in Siam, Uruguay and Morocco, and represented Britain at the Second Hague Peace Conference in 1907. In his retirement he wrote A Guide to Diplomatic Practice, now known as 'Satow's Guide to Diplomatic Practice' - this manual is widely used today, and has been updated several times by distinguished diplomats, notably Lord Gore-Booth.

  1.萨道义

  埃内斯特·马松·萨托爵士,PC,GCMG(1843年6月30日-1929年8月26日),英国英格兰外交家、日本学家。他以萨道义的名字为华人所知,其日本名字为佐藤爱之助,萨道义于1862-1883年、1895-1900年在英国驻日大使馆当通译;1884-1895年于暹罗(今泰国)、乌拉圭、摩洛哥当外交官;1900-1906年在中国(清朝)任驻华公使,代表英国签署《辛丑条约》、《中英续订藏印条约》。1906年被委任为英国枢密院委员。

  2.John Locke

  John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

  2.约翰·洛克

  约翰·洛克(1632年8月29日-1704年10月28日)是英国的哲学家。在知识论上,洛克与乔治·贝克莱、大卫·休谟三人被列为英国经验主义的代表人物,但他也在社会契约理论上做出重要贡献。他发展出了一套与托马斯·霍布斯的自然状态不同的理论,主张政府只有在取得被统治者的同意,并且保障人民拥有生命、自由、和财产的自然权利时,其统治才有正当性。洛克相信只有在取得被统治者的同意时,社会契约才会成立,如果缺乏了这种同意,那么人民便有推翻政府的权利。约翰·洛克将国家权力分为立法权、行政权和对外权,并主张立法权与行政权的分立,行政权与对外权的统一;立法权是国家最高权力。

  3.Jeremy Bentham

  Jeremy Bentham (15 February [O.S. 4 February] 1748 – 6 June 1832) was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Bentham became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He advocated individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts. He called for the abolition of slavery, the abolition of the death penalty, and the abolition of physical punishment, including that of children. He has also become known in recent years as an early advocate of animal rights. Though strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts".

  3.杰里米·边沁

  杰里米·边沁(1748年2月15日-1832年6月6日),英国哲学家、法学和社会改革家。他是最早支持功利主义和动物权利的人之一。他著有《政府论片断》(1776年),在其中对英国宪法进行了探讨。在他的《道德与立法原理》一书中,功利主义的原则第一次得到明确的表达。边沁在实践上是激进的社会改革者,他反对君主制,提倡普选制度。边沁也是最具影响力的古典自由主义者之一,其影响力不仅来源于他的著作,而且来源于他全世界的门徒,包括约翰·斯图尔特·密尔和一些政治领袖,如罗伯特·欧文(乌托邦社会主义的代表人物)。


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