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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 48

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月07日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 48

  英语单词讲解 unit 48

  1.Baruch Spinoza

  Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher. The breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until many years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and, arguably, the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy. His magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes's mind–body dualism, has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers.

  1.巴鲁赫·斯宾诺莎

  斯宾诺莎(1632年11月24日-1677年2月21日),西方近代哲学史重要的理性主义者,与笛卡尔和莱布尼茨齐名。斯宾诺莎的著作中最伟大的莫过于《依几何次序所证伦理学》(简称《伦理学》),该书是以欧几里得的几何学方式来书写的,一开始就给出一组公理以及各种公式,从中产生命题、证明、推论以及解释。该著作一直到斯宾诺莎死后才得以发表。他的其他两部重要的作品包括了《神学政治论》和《政治论》。《神学政治论》的主题是圣经批评与政治理论,而后者则只谈政治理论。

  2.Spinozism

  Spinozism (also spelled Spinoza-ism or Spinozaism) is the monist philosophical system of Baruch Spinoza which defines "God" as a singular self-subsistent substance, with both matter and thought being attributes of such. In Spinozism, the concept of a personal relationship with God comes from the position that one is a part of an infinite interdependent "organism." Spinoza argued that everything is a derivative of God, interconnected with all of existence. Although humans only experience thought and extension, what happens to one aspect of existence will still affect others. Thus, Spinozism teaches a form of determinism and ecology and supports this as a basis for morality.

  2.斯宾诺莎主义

  斯宾诺莎主义是具有无神论或泛神论性质的哲学学说。斯宾诺莎否认有人格神、超自然神的存在,集中批判了神学目的论、拟人观和天意说,要求从自然界本身来说明自然,他认为构成万物存在和统一基础的实体是自然界,也就是神。他开创了用理性主义观点和历史的方法系统地批判《圣经》的历史,考察了宗教的起源、本质和历史作用,建立了近代西方无神论史上一个较早和较系统的体系。克服了笛卡儿二元论的缺点,把唯理论与唯物主义和泛神论结合起来。以后的哲学家称具有这种特征的学说为斯宾诺莎主义。

  3.Tractatus Theologico-Politicus

  Written by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus or Theologico-Political Treatise was one of the most controversial texts of the early modern period. It was a preemptive defense of Spinoza's later work, Ethics, published posthumously in 1677, for which he anticipated harsh criticism.

  3.神学政治论

  《神学政治论》是17世纪荷兰哲学家斯宾诺莎主要著作之一。在书中,斯宾诺莎以理性主义和历史批判的视角审视和批判了传统的《圣经》诠释方法,在历史上第一次提出研究《圣经》的作者是谁,他们是在什么条件下写的,以及为何而作等等。书中还提倡天赋人权学说,社会契约说,信仰自由和言论自由等。


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