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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 50

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月07日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 50

  英语单词讲解 unit 50

  1.Hans Kelsen

  Hans Kelsen (October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher. Due to the rise of national socialism in Germany and Austria, Kelsen left his university post because of his Jewish ancestry, and departed to Geneva in 1933, and then to the United States in 1940. In 1934, Roscoe Pound lauded Kelsen as “undoubtedly the leading jurist of the time.” While in Vienna, Kelsen was a young colleague of Sigmund Freud and wrote on the subject of social psychology and sociology. By the 1940s, Kelsen’s reputation was already well established in the United States for his defense of democracy and for his magnum opus Pure Theory of Law (Reine Rechtslehre). Kelsen’s academic stature exceeded legal theory alone and extended to political philosophy and social theory as well. His influence encompassed the fields of philosophy, legal science, sociology, the theory of democracy, and international relations.

  1.汉斯·凯尔森

  汉斯·凯尔森(1881年10月11日-1973年4月19日)是20世纪著名奥地利裔犹太人法学家,法律实证主义的代表人物。凯尔森生于布拉格,两岁随父母来到维也纳,在维也纳大学学习法律,1906年获得博士学位。1911年,发表第一部代表作品《国家法学说的主要问题》。1919年,凯尔森成为维也纳大学国家法和行政法教授。1930年,成为德国科隆大学教授,1933年纳粹掌权后,凯尔森被开除,前往瑞士的日内瓦,1940年来到美国。

  2.Voltaire

  François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day.

  2.伏尔泰

  伏尔泰(1694年11月21日-1778年5月30日),原名弗朗索瓦-玛利?阿鲁埃,法国启蒙时代思想家、哲学家、文学家,启蒙运动公认的领袖和导师。被称为“法兰西思想之父”。与卢梭、孟德斯鸠合称“法兰西启蒙运动三剑侠”。他不仅在哲学上有卓越成就,也以捍卫公民自由,特别是信仰自由和司法公正而闻名。尽管在他所处的时代审查制度十分严厉,伏尔泰仍然公开支持社会改革。他的论说以讽刺见长,常常抨击天主教教会的教条和当时的法国教育制度。伏尔泰的著作和思想与托马斯·霍布斯及约翰·洛克一道,对美国革命和法国大革命的主要思想家都有影响。

  3.Montesquieu

  Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He did more than any other author to secure the place of the word despotism in the political lexicon, and may have been partly responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine Empire.

  3.孟德斯鸠

  夏尔·德·塞孔达,孟德斯鸠男爵(1689年1月18日-1755年2月10日)是法国启蒙时期思想家、律师,也是西方国家学说和法学理论的奠基人。与伏尔泰、卢梭合称“法兰西启蒙运动三剑侠”。“拜占庭帝国”这个说法的流行,孟德斯鸠出力甚多。


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