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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 53

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月08日

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  Explanation of English Words unit 53

  英语单词讲解 unit 53

  1.Homer

  Homer is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. He was believed by the ancient Greeks to have been the first and greatest of the epic poets. Author of the first known literature of Europe, he had a lasting effect on the Western canon.Whether and when he lived is unknown.The importance of Homer to the ancient Greeks is described in Plato's "Republic", which portrays him as the protos didaskalos, "first teacher," of the tragedians, and the hegemon paideias, the "leader of Greek culture," who ten Hellada pepaideukon, was "the teacher of [all] Greece." Homer's works, which are about fifty percent speeches, provided models in persuasive speaking and writing that were emulated throughout the ancient and medieval Greek worlds. Fragments of Homer account for nearly half of all identifiable Greek literary papyrus finds in Egypt.

  1.荷马

  荷马,相传为古希腊的游吟诗人,生于小亚细亚,失明,创作了史诗《伊利亚特》和《奥德赛》,两者统称《荷马史诗》。目前没有确切证据证明荷马的存在,所以也有人认为他是传说中被构造出来的人物。而关于《荷马史诗》,大多数学者认为是当时经过几个世纪口头流传的诗作的结晶。关于荷马的资料很少,所以对其生平有很多说法,但都无确凿证据。关于他的生活年代,古希腊历史学家希罗多德认为荷马生活在自己的时代之前至多不超过四百年,即大约公元前850年左右。除了这个广为接受的说法,也有人(比如修昔底德)认为荷马的年代离特洛伊战争的年代不远,大约是公元前12世纪早期。

  2.Tommaso Campanella

  Tommaso Campanella OP ( 5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.

  2.托马索·康帕内拉

  托马索·康帕内拉(1568年9月5日-1639年5月21日),原名乔瓦尼·多米尼克·康帕内拉,意大利哲学家、神学家、占星学家和诗人。康帕内拉的宗教思想较为激进,曾多次被捕,前后在狱中度过近三十年。最著名的著作是《太阳城》,他在这本书中借航海家与招待所管理员的对话,描绘了一个完全废除私有制的社会,启发了后来空想社会主义的众多理论与实践。

  3.David Hume

  David Hume ( 26 April 1711– 25 August 1776) was a Scottish historian, philosopher, economist, diplomat and essayist known today especially for his radical philosophical empiricism and scepticism.Having a central role in the Scottish Enlightenment, and in the history of Western philosophy, Brian Magee judged him as a philosopher "widely regarded as the greatest who has ever written in the English language." While Hume failed in his attempts to start a university career, he took part in various diplomatic and military missions of the time. He wrote The History of England which became a best-seller, and it became the standard history of England in its day.His empirical approach places him with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others at the time as a British Empiricist.

  3.大卫·休谟

  大卫·休谟(1711年4月26日-1776年8月25日)是苏格兰的哲学家、经济学家、和历史学家,他被视为是苏格兰启蒙运动以及西方哲学历史中最重要的人物之一。虽然现代对于休谟的著作研究聚焦于其哲学思想上,他最先是以历史学家的身分成名。他所著的《英格兰史》一书在当时成为英格兰历史学界的基础著作长达60至70年。历史学家们一般将休谟的哲学归类为彻底的怀疑主义,但一些人主张自然主义也是休谟的中心思想之一。研究休谟的学者经常分为那些强调怀疑成分的(例如逻辑实证主义)、以及那些强调自然主义成分的人。休谟的哲学受到经验主义者约翰·洛克和乔治·贝克莱的深刻影响,也受到一些法国作家的影响,他也吸收了各种英格兰知识分子如艾萨克·牛顿、法兰西斯·哈奇森、亚当·斯密等人的理论。


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