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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 60

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月09日

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  英语单词讲解 unit 60

  1.Fernand Braudel

  Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: The Mediterranean (1923–49, then 1949–66), Civilization and Capitalism (1955–79), and the unfinished Identity of France (1970–85). His reputation stems in part from his writings, but even more from his success in making the Annales School the most important engine of historical research in France and much of the world after 1950. As the dominant leader of the Annales School of historiography in the 1950s and 1960s, he exerted enormous influence on historical writing in France and other countries. Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of the modern historians who have emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history. He can also be considered as one of the precursors of world-systems theory.

  1.费尔南·布劳岱尔

  费尔南·布劳岱尔(1902年8月24日-1985年11月27日),法国年鉴学派第二代著名的史学家。1920年入巴黎大学文学院攻读历史,1923年毕业,经过一段在海外中学教书的经历之后,1937年回国时遇上年鉴学派的创始人之一的费弗尔,开始受其影响。二次大战爆发后受征召入伍,在1940年被德军俘虏,关在战俘营近五年,在里面开始写《菲利浦二世时代的地中海和地中海世界》的初稿,而在1947年成为他的博士论文并通过考试,1949年出版。1946年,他加入《年鉴》学报的编辑部,其后与费弗尔创立高等实验研究院第六部(社会科学高等学院前身)。1956年-1972年间,担任该部主任。1984年他当选为法兰西学院的院士,翌年逝世。

  2.Carl von Clausewitz

  Carl Philipp Gottfried "Gottlieb" von Clausewitz(June 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege (On War), was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist and used the more rationalist ideas of the European Enlightenment. His thinking is often described as Hegelian because of his references to dialectical thinking but, although he was probably personally acquainted with Hegel, there remains debate as to whether or not Clausewitz was in fact a disciple. He stressed the dialectical interaction of diverse factors, noting how unexpected developments unfolding under the "fog of war" (i.e., in the face of incomplete, dubious, and often completely erroneous information and high levels of fear, doubt, and excitement) call for rapid decisions by alert commanders. He saw history as a vital check on erudite abstractions that did not accord with experience. In contrast to Antoine-Henri Jomini, he argued that war could not be quantified or reduced to mapwork, geometry, and graphs. Clausewitz had many aphorisms, of which the most famous is: "War is the continuation of politics by other means".

  2.卡尔·冯·克劳塞维茨

  卡尔·冯·克劳塞维茨(1781年7月1日-1831年11月16日),普鲁士将军,军事理论家。克劳塞维茨出生在普鲁士马格德堡的一个贵族家庭,12岁时就参加了普鲁士军队,13岁就第一次走上了战场。1803年从柏林普通军校毕业后担任奥古斯特亲王的副官。在1808年,克劳塞维茨进入到格哈德·冯·沙恩霍斯特奠基的普军总参谋部中任职。当时法国大革命及拿破仑的军事行动使普鲁士内部也涌动着改革的潮流,这场变革与香恩霍斯特、威廉·冯·洪堡、施泰因、哈登堡等人的名字紧紧相连,克劳塞维茨所在的普鲁士总参谋部自然成为了军事改革的先锋。克劳塞维茨在1812年发表了名为《三个信条》的日尔曼民族解放纲领,在其中表达了改革派联合俄国,抗击拿破仑的观点,和19世纪另一位大军事思想家约米尼并列为西方军事思想的两大权威。就在1812年5月克劳塞维茨来到俄国军队,在俄国抵抗拿破仑进攻的卫国战争中克劳塞维茨参加了奥斯特洛夫斯诺、斯摩棱斯克、博罗金诺等会战,担任过柏林骑兵军与乌瓦洛甫骑兵军的作战军官。1814年回到普鲁士军队,1818年出任柏林军官学校校长并晋升为将军。

  3.Christopher Columbus

  Christopher Columbus (born between 31 October 1450 and 30 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was a Genoese explorer, navigator, and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa (today part of Italy). Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.

  3.克里斯托弗·哥伦布

  克里斯托弗·哥伦布(1450年/1451年10月31日-1506年5月20日),探险家、殖民者、航海家,出生于中世纪的热那亚共和国(今意大利西北部)。在西班牙的天主教君主的赞助下,他在1492年到1502年间四次横渡大西洋,并且成功到达美洲。他使得普通欧洲人也知道了美洲。他的这些航行,以及在伊斯帕尼奥拉岛建立永久居民点的努力,拉开西班牙殖民美洲的序幕,同时也是欧洲殖民后来所谓“新大陆”的先驱。其灵柩现存于西班牙塞维利亚主教座堂主堂内。


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