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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 61

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月09日

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  英语单词讲解 unit 61

  1.Auguste Comte

  Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857), better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte's social theories culminated in the "Religion of Humanity", which influenced the development of religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century. Comte likewise coined the word altruisme (altruism).

  1.奥古斯特·孔德

  奥古斯特·孔德(1798年1月19日-1857年9月5日)(“孔德”旧一译“喀谟德”)是法国著名的哲学家,社会学、实证主义的创始人。他认为人类社会有统一性。人性中的感性是推动社会发展的动力。人性中的才智是推动社会发展的工具。因而理想社会应该是人人都有实证思想,企业家或科学家当主管,科学用来指导生活,没有战争,很有秩序的工业社会。在那儿,大家有统一的信仰,教权很重,人人都轻视世俗中按才智区分的地位,而重视精神上的地位。过去的社会和目前的社会是不完美的。但会进化到理想社会中去。进化的动力是差异性。个人无法改变历史。社会大于个人,语言、宗教、所有制、人数与财富,都在传承、支撑着社会。分工对社会有利有弊,社会现象之间彼此联系,有一定的功能,理想社会会自动实现。

  2.Herodotus

  Herodotus was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–425 BC). Widely referred to as "The Father of History" (first conferred by Cicero), he was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically and critically, and then to arrange them into a historiographic narrative. The Histories—his masterpiece and the only work he is known to have produced—is a record of his "inquiry" ,being an investigation of the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars and including a wealth of geographical and ethnographical information. Although some of his stories were fanciful and others inaccurate, he claimed he was reporting only what had been told to him. Little is known of his personal history.

  2.希罗多德

  希罗多德,前5世纪(约前484年-前425年)的古希腊作家,他把旅行中的所闻所见,以及波斯阿契美尼德帝国的历史纪录下来,著成《历史》一书,成为西方文学史上第一部完整流传下来的散文作品。他生于哈利卡那索斯,即现在小亚细亚的博德鲁姆,似乎在一次政变失败后被流放,并在萨摩斯岛隐居。他好像再没有回去过哈利卡那索斯,但还是在《历史》中表明对自己城邦及其女王亚特米西雅的热爱。在流放中他周游了他在《历史》中记载的各国。他去过古埃及,并从尼罗河南下到阿斯旺,以及美索不达米亚、克里米亚半岛、黑海沿岸平原、亚平宁半岛和西西里岛。希罗多德提到了他在斯巴达访问了一个题材提供者,并肯定在雅典住过一段时间。他在雅典认识了伯里克利的家族,并提及了它的演讲家传统。但雅典人并没有把外邦人当作公民:在前444年雅典殖民于亚平宁半岛的图利时,希罗多德成了一位殖民者。至于他是否在那儿去世则无从考知。

  3.Martin Luther

  Martin Luther, OSA,(10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German friar, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity known later as the Protestant Reformation. Initially an Augustinian friar, Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor.

  3.马丁·路德

  马丁·路德(1483年11月10日-1546年2月18日),德国基督教神学家,宗教改革运动的主要发起人,基督教更正派信义宗教会(即路德宗)的开创者,曾是罗马大公教会奥斯定会的修士。提倡因信称义,反对教宗的权威地位。他翻译的德文圣经影响深远,促进了德文的发展。


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