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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 64

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月27日

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  1.Dwight D. Eisenhower

  Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO. He was the last U.S. President to have been born in the 19th century.

  1.德怀特·艾森豪威尔

  德怀特·大卫·艾森豪威尔(1890年10月14日-1969年3月28日),是美国陆军五星上将和第34任总统(1953年-1961年)。第二次世界大战期间,他担任盟军在欧洲的最高指挥官;二战时期,军中的士兵都称呼他为艾克。负责计划和执行监督1944年至1945年里,进攻维希法国和纳粹德国的行动。1951年又出任北大西洋公约组织武装力量最高司令。

  2.Eisenhower Doctrine

  The term Eisenhower Doctrine refers to a speech by President Dwight David Eisenhower on 5 January 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East". Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a Middle Eastern country could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism."

  2.艾森豪威尔主义

  艾森豪威尔主义为马歇尔计划的组成部分之一,由美国总统艾森豪威尔在冷战时期提出的一项对外政策。50年代,在中东和北非民族解放运动高涨的形势下,为遏制苏联等社会主义国家对中东的影响,艾森豪威尔于1957年1月5日正式向国会提交一份关于中东问题的特别咨文。其中心思想是“中东出现的真空必须在俄国人近来之前由美国来填补“,要求国会授权他在中东实行“军事援助和合作计划”。3月7日美国国会通过决议。3月9日由艾森豪威尔签署生效。决议宣称:保持中东地区国家的独立和完整关系到美国的重大利益,授权总统动用2亿美元,给这些国家以经济和军事援助:美国可在这一地区使用武力,以对付所谓“国际共产主义的武装侵略”。1958年7月,根据艾森豪威尔主义,美国出兵黎巴嫩,干预该国国内事务。

  3.Harry S. Truman

  Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States (1945–53). As the final running mate of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when Roosevelt died after months of declining health. Under Truman, the Allies successfully concluded World War II; in the aftermath of the conflict, tensions with the Soviet Union increased, marking the start of the Cold War. Truman was born in Missouri and spent most of his youth on his family's farm. During World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer in his National Guard unit. After the war, he briefly owned a haberdashery and joined the Democratic Party political machine of Tom Pendergast in Kansas City, Missouri. Truman was first elected to public office as a county official and became a U.S. Senator in 1935. He gained national prominence as head of the wartime Truman Committee, which exposed waste, fraud, and corruption in wartime contracts.

  3.哈里·S·杜鲁门

  哈里·S·杜鲁门(1884年5月8日-1972年12月26日),美国民主党政治家,第34任副总统(1945年),随后接替因病逝世的富兰克林·D·罗斯福总统,成为了第33任美国总统(1945年-1953年)。他也是一名共济会成员。面对美国国内事务,杜鲁门总统正好遇上新一轮混乱的经济衰退周期,当时物资短缺、有无数罢工事件和有关否决《塔夫脱-哈特利法》的争议,都是当代的写照。杜鲁门虽于1948年成功连任总统,但却未能成功掌握国会多数,以致于他的“良政”计划几乎全部流产。然而他曾率先以行政命令在美军内部施行废除种族隔离,并因应形势主持第二次“红色恐慌”,从政府部门辞退了数以千计可能影响国政的共产党同情者。不过,由于受到一连串财政丑闻打击,有达数百位由他任命的官员必须辞职。


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