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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 69

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月28日

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  1.Otto von Bismarck

  Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states (excluding Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871 he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to preserve German hegemony in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was Bismarck, who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for almost twenty years after 1871, [and] devoted himself exclusively, and successfully, to maintaining peace between the powers."

  1.奥托·冯·俾斯麦

  奥托·爱德华·利奥波德·冯·俾斯麦(1815年4月1日-1898年7月30日),劳恩堡公爵,普鲁士王国首相(1862年-1890年),德意志帝国首任宰相,人称“铁血宰相”(“铁”指武器,“血”指战争)、“德国的建筑师”及“德国的领航员”。俾斯麦是十九世纪德国最卓越的政治家,担任普鲁士 首相期间通过一系列铁血战争统一德意志,并成为德意志帝国第一任宰相(又译“帝国总理”)。俾斯麦是保守派,维护专制主义,镇压了19世纪80年代的社会民主主义运动;但他通过立法,建立了世界上最早的工人养老金、健康和医疗保险制度,及社会保险。由于其对德国统一的贡献,加上卓越及伟大成就,俾斯麦最后获升任为德意志帝国陆军上将。在2005年德国电视二台票选最伟大的德国人活动中,他排名第九,次于第八伟大的印刷术发明者约翰内斯·古腾堡。

  2.Napoleon

  Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815. Napoleon dominated European affairs for almost two decades while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He won the large majority of his battles and seized control of most of continental Europe before his ultimate defeat in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, his campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide and he remains simultaneously one of the most celebrated and controversial political figures in European history. In civil affairs, Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms across Europe, including the abolition of feudalism, the establishment of legal equality and religious toleration, and the legalization of divorce. His lasting legal achievement, the Napoleonic Code, has been adopted to varying degrees by dozens of nations around the world.

  2.拿破仑一世

  拿破仑·波拿巴(1769年8月15日-1821年5月5日),法国军事家、政治家与法学家,在法国大革命末期和法国大革命战争中达到权力巅峰。作为拿破仑一世,他在1804至1815年间在位,称“法国人的皇帝”,也是历史上自胖子查理(881年-887年在位)后第二位享有此名号的法国皇帝。他推动司法改革,颁布《拿破仑法典》,而这一法典也对世界范围内的民法制订产生重要的影响。拿破仑最为人所知的功绩是带领法国对抗一系列的反法同盟,即所谓的拿破仑战争。他在欧洲大陆建立霸权,传播法国大革命的理念,同时创立法兰西第一帝国,在一定程度上恢复过去旧制度中的一些体制。拿破仑在他所参加的这些战争中屡获胜利,以少胜多的案例屡见不鲜,由此他也被认为是史上最伟大的军事家之一,他的战略也为全球的军事学院所研究和学习

  3.Alexander the Great

  Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great , was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest ancient India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful military commanders.

  3.亚历山大大帝

  马其顿的亚历山大三世(前356年-前323年),世称亚历山大大帝,古希腊北部马其顿国王。生于佩拉,到16岁为止一直由亚里士多德任其导师。30岁时,已经创立历史上最大的帝国之一,其疆域从爱奥尼亚海一直延伸到喜马拉雅山脉。[1]他一生未尝败绩,被认为是历史上最成功的统帅之一。


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