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国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 70

所属教程:国际关系词汇

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2015年01月28日

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  1.Frederick the Great

  Frederick II (24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was the third Hohenzollern king, reigning over the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786. Frederick's achievements during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the Arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. He became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("Old Fritz") by the Prussian people.

  1.腓特烈二世 (普鲁士)

  腓特烈二世(1712年1月24日-1786年8月17日),史称腓特烈大帝。普鲁士国王(1740年5月31日-1786年8月17日在位),军事家,政治家,作家,作曲家。统治时期普鲁士军力大规模发展,领土大举扩张,文化艺术得到赞助和支持,“德意志启蒙运动”得以开展。其使普鲁士在欧洲大陆取得大国地位,并在德意志内部取得霸权,向以普鲁士为中心武力统一德意志的道路迈出第一步。腓特烈二世是欧洲历史上最伟大的名将之一,也是欧洲“开明专制”君主的代表人物,并且为启蒙运动时期的文化名人,在政治、经济、哲学、法律、甚至音乐诸多方面都颇有建树,为启蒙运动一大重要人物。

  2.Klemens von Metternich

  Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was a politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. One of his first tasks was to engineer a détente with France that included the marriage of Napoleon to the Austrian archduchess Marie Louise. Soon after, however, he engineered Austria's entry into the War of the Sixth Coalition on the Allied side, signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau that sent Napoleon into exile and led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna which divided post-Napoleonic Europe between the major powers. In recognition of his service to the Austrian Empire he was raised to the title of Prince in October 1813. Under his guidance, the "Metternich system" of international congresses continued for another decade as Austria aligned herself with Russia and, to a lesser extent, Prussia. This marked the high point of Austria's diplomatic importance, and thereafter Metternich slowly slipped back into the periphery of international diplomacy. At home, Metternich also held the post of Chancellor of State from 1821 until 1848, under both Francis I and his son Ferdinand I. After a brief period of exile in London, Brighton and Brussels that lasted until 1851, he returned once more to the Viennese court, this time to offer only advice to Ferdinand's successor, Franz Josef. Having outlived his generation of politicians, Metternich died at the age of 86 in 1859.

  2.克莱门斯·梅特涅

  克莱门斯·梅特涅(1773年5月15日-1859年6月11日)是在德国出生的奥地利政治家。他是所在时代最重要的外交家之一。他从1809年开始任奥地利帝国的外交大臣直至1848年革命爆发,被迫下野为止。他任内首要工作之一是缓和和奥地利与法国的关系。他也促成了奥地利公主,女公爵玛丽·路易莎与拿破仑的婚姻。而在这不久之后,他作为外相又推动了奥地利加入第六次反法同盟,代表奥地利签署了枫丹白露条约,并流放拿破仑。他是后拿破仑时代由欧洲列强组成的维也纳会议(1814年9月-1815年6月)的主席。为表彰他为帝国作出的贡献,帝国在1813年10月授予他亲王的头衔。在他的影响之下,“梅特涅体系”维续着奥地利与俄国、普鲁士的联盟十数年之久。这是梅特涅在奥地利外交上的最高峰,此后梅特涅逐渐被国际外交边缘化。从1821年开始他担任奥地利帝国首相,历经两朝(弗朗西斯二世和他儿子费迪南一世)直到1848年费迪南一世逊位。此后,他在经历了从伦敦到布莱顿再到布鲁塞尔的短暂流亡生涯后,他于1851年再一次回到维也纳宫廷,成为费迪南一世的继任者——弗朗茨·约瑟夫一世的顾问。1859年梅特涅逝世,享年86岁,与他同一时代的政治家里面,他享年最久。

  3.Charles de Gaulle

  Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general, resistant, writer and politician. He was the leader of Free France (1940-1944) and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944-1946). In 1959, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era and his memory continues to influence French politics.

  3.夏尔·戴高乐

  夏尔·安德烈·约瑟夫·马里·戴高乐(1890年11月22日-1970年11月9日)是法国军事家、政治家,曾在第二次世界大战期间领导自由法国运动,战后短暂出任临时总统,后由于左派反对他要求加强总统权力的宪法被迫辞职。1958年成立法兰西第五共和国并出任第一任总统。在法国,戴高乐通常被称为“戴高乐将军”甚至简称“将军”。


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