1 .状语有时由一个名词(或代词)加另一成份构成，是一种复合结构，也可称为独立结构(absolute construction ) .最常见的是“名词+现在分词”:
The plane crashed, its bombs exploding as it hit the ground.
He groaned and fell to the floor, blood streaming from his nose.
Weather permitting, we'll go on an excursion to the Western Hills tomorrow.
The dark clouds having dispersed, the sun shone again.
2 .还可以由过去分词(a ) ，形容词(b ) ，不成式(c ) ，介词短语(d )或副词(e )构成：
He lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head.
Fumin came in, his eyes slightly swollen.
He entered the room, his nose red with cold.
The people, their livelihood secure, now have leisure to take up sports .
Here are the first two volumes, the third one to come out next month.
After killing the Japanese soldier, the two partisans ran away, riflein hand .
He put on his socks wrong side out .
3 .介词with 也常可引起这种复合结构：
He fell asleep with the light still burning.
She sat with her head bent.
He was asleep wit his head on his arms .
1. He entered the dark room, gun in hand.
1. gun in hand
2. The old man satdown, his face pale with pain and traces of tears still on his cheeks.
2. his face pale with pain and traces of tears still on his cheeks
5. John beingaway, Henry had to do the work.
5. John beingaway
7. They were subdivided into three groups, each working on a project.
7. each working on a project
8. He sat in the front row, his mouth half open, his head thrust forward so as not to miss any word.
8. his mouth half open, his head thrust forward so as not to miss any word
1. They stood with their arms round each other, quivering.
1. with their arms round each other
2. We sat on the grass with our backs to the wall.
2. with our backs to the wall.
3. All the afternoon he worked with the door locked.
3. with the door locked
4. She sat with her arms round her knees.
4. with her arms round her knees
5. I won't be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill.
5. with my mother being ill