4-1 现在完成式(Present Perfect Tense)
完成式的形式是 verb to have + past participle，每一个动词，都有过去式和过去分词，以下就是一些例子：
原式 过去式 过去分词(past participle)
go went gone
come came come
see saw seen
do did done
watch watched watched
get got gotten(或got)
have had had
use used used
buy bought bought
listen listened listened
draw drew drawn
paint painted painted
leave left left
arrive arrived arrived
dance danced danced
kill killed killed
write wrote written
run ran run
swim swam swum
snow snowed snowed
eat ate eaten
love loved loved
fly flew flown
spread spread spread
hit hit hit
drink drank drunk
take took taken
grow grew grow n
sell sold sold
ride rode ridden
steal stole stolen
break broke broken
walk walked walked
read read read
sing sang sung
work worked worked
I have read this book.
I have seen the movie.
I have lived here since 1973.
I have studied English for a long time.
He has washed his hands.
He has left.
He has already completed the report.
The storm has arrived.
I have taken the job.
I have written the letters.
I have not seen him since 1975.
I have never seen this man before.
I have studied English since 1963.
I have lived here since 1975.
I have loved rock and roll music since I was a child.
Since last year, I have never seen him.
He has worked here since 1950.
I have known him for a long time.
He has already practiced tennis for (the past) four years.
I have worn this jacket for a very long time.
I have driven this car for a long time.
It has not rained for a long time.
I have already written the letter.
He has already completed the work.
I have already tested the program.
I have already received your letter.
He has already moved to a bigger house.
Although he is young, he has already written three novels.
I called him twice, he has never answered.
I have been to America.
I have seen President Lee.
I have never danced in my life.
I have read The Tale of Two Cities.
He has tasted this kind of ice cream.
I have never seen snow.
Have you ever seen snow?
Have you ever climbed Jade Mountain?
We have already had two typhoons so far this year.
He has already published three papers this year.
In the past year, I have seen The Titanic three times.
(a)I went to America last year.
I have been to America.
(b)I saw The Titanic last year.
I have seen The Titanic twice.
(c)I finished my homework late last night.
I have finally finished my homework.
(d)I studied English when I was a small child.
I have studied English since I was a child.
(e)I went to church yesterday.
I have never been to church.
*(1)I have seen the movie last year.
*(2)I have never been to America last year.
*(3)He has never finished his work last night.
(1)I have already had dinner.
(2)Since this summer began, we have already had two storms.
(3)It has not rained for a long time.
(4)I have never talked to this man before.
(5)I have never met your father.
(6)Have you ever been to America?
(7)He has already won three awards.
(8)I have stayed here since June.
Never 和 ever 也常是我们弄不清楚如何使用的字，一般说来， never 有否定的意思，ever则只有在问句中才会出现。