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专门替中国人写的英语语法11-3:形容词子句(Adjective Clauses)

所属教程:专门替中国人写的英语语法

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Lisa

2015年01月25日

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  第十一章 词组(Phrases)和子句(Clauses)

  11-3 形容词子句(Adjective Clauses)

  在上二节,子句都是用作名词的。在这一节,我们要介绍一种新的子句,那就是形容词子句。请看以的中文句子:

  位在那房子里的人是我的哥哥。

  我们不能直接了当地将以上的句子译成:

  *The person live in that house is my brother

  第一种办法是将live in the house改成living in the house,也就是说,我们可以将那个中文句子译成下列的形式:

  The person living in the house is my brother.

  以上的句子中,living in the house是一个词组,我们可以将这个词组改成子句。因此,以下的翻译是正确的:

  The person who lives in the house is my brother.

  在以上的句子中,who lives in the house是一个子句,因为它有主词,也有动词。他的作用是形容The person,所以是一个形容词子句。 由于形容词子句永远都是在形容一个名词,因此我们在这个子句中必需有一个代名词(pronoun),像who, when, where, whom等。

  以下是一些形容词子句的例子,读者应该弄清楚每一个形容词子句所形容的名词。

  The people who live in the country are often very healthy.(住在乡下的人常常很健康)

  Do you like people who always talk about themselves.(你喜欢那些永远讲他自己的人吗?)

  The house which we bought last year is located beside a lake.(我们去年买的房子座落在湖边)

  I met your uncle who has a red car.(我遇见了你的有红色汽车的叔叔)

  Do you know the author who wrote this novel?(你知道写这本书的作者吗?)

  I have been to the house where Charles Dickens lived.(我曾去过狄更司住过的房子)

  I don't remember the year when the Second World War broke out.(我不记得二次世界大战哪一年爆发的)

  Let me know the date when you got married.(让我知道你是哪一天结婚的)

  I bought the car which Michael Johnson drove.(我下了麦克强森开的车子)

  The storm which hit India last week is very strong. (上周袭击印度的暴风雨是很强烈的)

  I thank all of you who helped me.(我要谢谢所有帮助过我的人)

  The girl whom you met last night works in a library.(你昨晚碰到的女孩子在一个图书馆里工作)

  The students whom you taught like you very much.(那些你教过的学生很喜欢你)

  I like the professor who taught me English.(我喜欢那位教我英文的老师)

  In this country, there are a lot of students who go to school by bus.(这个国家有很多学生搭乘公车上学)

  Have you heard about the murder case that occurred last night?(你有没有听到有关昨天晚上发生的谋杀案?)

  Those who love others will be loved by others.(爱人者人恒爱之)

  He is a person whom everyone is talking about these days.(他是大家最近在讨论的人)

  The party which I went to is interesting.(我去参加的宴会很有趣)

  The professor whom I spoke to is very friendly.(这位我和他谈话的教授很和善)

  Russia, which this island belongs to, is a big country.(这个岛屿属于俄国,俄国是一个大的国家)

  请注意以上最后的四个句子,它们有一个共同的特性,那就是子句的最后一个字是一个介系词(preposition),我们先看第一个句子:

  He is a person whom everyone is talking about these days.

  这一句话可以分成两个句子来讲

  He is a person.

  Everyone is talking about him these days.

  因此我们将这两句话合并而成为

  He is a person whom everyone is talking about these days.

  在正式的英文中,我们必须说:

  He is a person about whom everyone is talking these days.

  再看下一句:

  The party Which I went to is interesting.

  这句话也可以分成两句来讲:

  The party is interesting.

  I went to the party.

  因此我们将两个句子合并为一个句子:

  The party which I went to is interesting.

  正式的讲法应该是

  The party to which I went is interesting.

  同理,在正式英文中,其它二个名词子句中的介系词,也应该放到前面去:

  The professor to whom I spoke is very friendly.

  Russia, to which this island belongs, is a big country.

  我们还有一点必须在此指出,请看以下错误的句子:

  *I like the book which you gave it to me.

  以上句子中的it是多余的,因为gave的受词是which,不需要加it。

  以下的句子都是错的:

  *He is the person whom everyone loves him.

  *He is not the person whom you saw him.


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