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专门替中国人写的英语语法12-1:a和the之不同用法

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Lisa

2015年01月26日

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  第十二章 冠词(Articles)

  12-1 a和the之不同用法

  a和the最大的不同,在于a后面的名词不是指定的,而the后面的名词是有所指的。我们不妨看以下的两个句子,他们都是正确的,但意义却不同。

  John is a boy.

  John is the boy.

  〝John is a boy.〞的意思是〝约翰是一个男孩〞,而〝John is the boy.〞的意思就完不同了,我们一定曾经提到过某一个男孩子,而约翰就是那个男孩子。可能的情形是:There is a boy who is very good in mathematics. John is the boy.

  我们就以〝国王〞为例,如果我们泛指一般的国王,我们可以用复数,也可以用单数,但必须用a,以下是一些例子:

  Kings are also human beings.

  Even a king will die sooner or later.

  Have you ever met a king ?

  I do not like to be a king.

  He is an ordinary person, not a king.

  如果我们的国王是指某一个特定的国王,就必须用the,举一个例子;如果我们说〝国王万岁〞,我们当然是指我们的国王,因此〝国王万岁〞的翻译就是

  Long live the King.

  以下的例子都是正确

  Here comes the King.

  The King is a popular person in our country.

  Even the King of England can not come in.

  读者应该了解,同类型的句子,可以用a,也可以用the,但意义是完全不同的,请看以下的句子:

  He is not a boy who would cheat others.

  意思是:

  他不是那种会欺骗别人的男孩子。

  再看以下的句子:

  He is not the boy who cheated in an examination yesterday.

  他不是昨天在考试中舞弊的男孩。

  再看以下的句子:

  He is a King.

  意思是〝他是一个国王〞。

  如果说

  He is the King.

  意思就完全不同了,这句话的意思是〝他是我们国家的国王〞。 请注意,世界上国王有好多个,如果我们仅仅说他是一个国王,当然没有指定哪一个国家的国王,就用a king,如果我们用the King意思当然指我们共识中的国王。这时的King中的K必须大写,以示尊敬。

  我们再举一个例子:

  Please open a window.

  是指请开一扇窗子,随便哪一扇都可以。

  Please open the window.

  就不同了,说这句话的人和听这句话的人一定有一个共识,〝the window〞一定是指某一扇特定的窗子,也许这间房子里只有一扇窗,也可能他们谈话中曾经提到某一扇窗,〝the window〞就是指那一扇窗。

  我们可以再举一个例,假如我们说,〝我们需要一场大雨〞,我们说 :

  We need a heavy rain.

  如果我们说,〝这场雨好大〞,我们说

  The rain is really heavy.

  有了这个基本观念以后,我们就很容易了解以下句子中,为什么要用the:

  I am going to the train station.

  The post office is quite near.

  Where is the library?

  根据这种原则,当我们提到地球,月亮这种独一无二的东西,就必须用the。

  the earth

  the sun

  the moon

  the universe

  除此以外,the还有一个特殊的用途,我们可以在the的后面加一个形容词,使这两个字变成了一个名词,举例来说:

  the rich=富人

  the poor=穷人

  the weak=弱者

  the deaf=聋人

  the blind=盲人

  请注意,以上的名词是复数:

  The rich always get richer.

  The poor are getting poorer.

  The blind are often very sensitive to sounds.

  以下是一些用a和the的例子,读者应设法了解句子中为何有时用a,有时用the。

  He is a student.

  He is the student who can swim very well.

  I like to be a teacher.

  He is the teacher who taught me English.

  The president of the United States in an important person in the world.

  I have a son and a daughter.

  I have two sons. This is the son who will be a doctor.

  I want to be a teacher who is loved by students.

  He is not the person whom we talked about.

  There is a boat in the river.

  This is the boat which we can use.

  The rain is going to stop tomorrow.

  We need a good rain.

  The weather is really bad.

  Is there a train station near us?

  Where is the station?

  Do you know where the post office is?

  There is a post office inside that building.

  The library looks so good.

  The rich should pay more taxes.

  We should pay more attentions to the poor.

  The blind can also study computer science now.

  The earth is round.

  The sun never sets in the British Empire.

  Do you think we can reach the moon?

  How large is the universe?


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