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英语语法:洪恩语法之分词详解

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2015年01月25日

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Tall trees catch much wind.
树大招风。
9. 分词

9.1 分词作定语

分词前置

We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日

He is a retired worker.  他是位退休的工人

分词后置 (i分词词组;ii 个别分词如given, left; iii 修饰不定代词 something等)

There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里

This is the question given.   这是所给的问题

There is nothing interesting.  没有有趣的东西

过去分词作定语

与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。

Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.

Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.

典型例题

1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.

A. have written  B. to be written  C. being written  D. written

答案D. 书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句 which is written

2)What's the language ____ in Germany?

A. speaking  B. spoken   C. be spoken  D. to speak

答案B. 主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。

spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为:

What's the language (which is) spoken in German?

9.2 分词作状语

As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.

-> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.

由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了电话。

If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.

-> Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.

假如多给些照顾,那些树会长得更好。

典型例题

1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.

A. Followed  B. Followed by  C. Being followed  D. Having been followed

答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为:                
With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.

2)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.

A. followed  B. following  C. to be followed  D. being followed

答案B. 由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动。用现在分词。

3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases.

A. Heating  B. To be heated  C. Heated  D. Heat

答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated,…

注意: 选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。

(Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.

由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。

Using the book, I find it useful.

在使用的过程中, 我发现这本书很有用。

9.3 连词+分词(短语)

有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。 连词有: when,while,if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个,如:

While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.

waiting 和saw 的主语相同。

9.4 分词作补语

通常在感官动词和使役动词之后,如:

I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。

I'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。

9.5 分词作表语

现在分词: 表示主动,正在进行

过去分词: 表示被动,已经完成

She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭,看上去有些疲倦。

He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁。

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9.6 分词作插入语

其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。

generally speaking 一般说来

talking of (speaking of) 说道

strictly speaking 严格的说

judging from 从…判断

all things considered 从整体来看

taking all things into consideration 全面看来

Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。

Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并不是dogs 的动作)

9.7 分词的时态

1)与主语动词同时,

Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.  听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。

Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。

典型例题

The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.

A. to prepare  B. preparing  C. prepared  D. was preparing

答案B. 此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B,C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,且与主语为主动关系,应用现在分词。

2)先于主动词

While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。

分词作时间状语,如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后, 要用having done。

Having finished his homework, he went out.

=As he had finished his homework, he went out.

做完作业后,他出去了。

典型例题

___ a reply, he decided to write again.

A. Not receiving  B. Receiving not  C. Not having received  D. Having not received

答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词,故选C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

9.8 分词的语态

1)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动,例如:

He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…) 他就是给你钱的那个人。

He is the man stopped by the car.  ( = who was stopped by…)

他就是那个被车拦住的人。

2)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生

gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned

例: a well-read person.  一个读过许多书的人

a much-travelled may 一个去过许多地方的人

a burnt-out match   烧完了的火柴


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