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英语语法:洪恩语法之动词的时态详解

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2015年01月25日

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People do not lack strength; they lack will. 人们不缺力量,缺的是决心。
 
11. 动词的时态

11.1 一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。

时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun.

Shanghai lies in the east of China.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much.

Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup.

I am doing my homework now.

第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。

11.2 一般过去时的用法

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。

时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。

Where did you go just now?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

3)句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……时间了"  "该……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……了"

It is time for you to go to bed.  你该睡觉了。

It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'

I'd rather you came tomorrow.

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。

I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

比较:

一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。

Christine was an invalid all her life.

(含义:她已不在人间。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life.

(含义:她现在还活着)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.

(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

Did you want anything else?

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情态动词 could, would.

Could you lend me your bike?

11.3 used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。

Mother used not to be so forgetful.

Scarf used to take a walk.  (过去常常散步)

be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。

He is used to a vegetarian diet.

Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)

典型例题

---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.

---- It's 69568442.

A. didn't  B. couldn't C. don't D. can't

答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看 出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。

11.4 一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。

c. 有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3)  be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

11.5 be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来

will 表意愿

If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

11.6 be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。

be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon.   (客观安排)

I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)

11.7 一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.

2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.

3)在时间或条件句中。

When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。

I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

11.8 用现在进行时表示将来

意为:"意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay等。

I'm leaving tomorrow.

Are you staying here till next week?

11.9 现在完成时

现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 态,其结果的确和现在有联系。动作或状态发生在过去 但它的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或 状态。其构成: have (has) +过去分词。

11.10 比较过去时与现在完成时

1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。

2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

一般过去时的时间状语:

yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语

共同的时间状语:

this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately

现在完成时的时间状语

for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet,      till / until, up to now, in past years, always,

不确定的时间状语

3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.

过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。

举例:

I saw this film yesterday.

(强调看的动作发生过了。)

I have seen this film.

(强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

Why did you get up so early?

(强调起床的动作已发生过了。)

Who hasn't handed in his paper?

(强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争。)

She has returned from Paris.

她已从巴黎回来了。

She returned yesterday.

她是昨天回来了。

He has been in the League for three years.

(在团内的状态可延续)

He has been a League member for three years.

(是团员的状态可持续)

He joined the League three years ago.

( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。)

I have finished my homework now.

---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?

---He's already been sent for.

句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

11.11 用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

It is the first time that I have visited the city.

It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.

This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.

这是我看过的最好的电影。

This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

典型例题

(1) ---Do you know our town at all?

---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was  B. have been  C. came  D. am coming

答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。

(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?

---No, it's the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come  B. even, have come  C. ever, come  D. ever, have come

答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。

注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。

(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.

11.12 比较since和for

Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。

I have lived here for more than twenty years.

I have lived here since I was born..

My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.

Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.

I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl.

My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.

I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.

注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。

I worked here for more than twenty years.

(我现在已不在这里工作。)

I have worked here for many years.

(现在我仍在这里工作。)

小窍门: 当现在完成时+一段时间,这一结构中,我们用下面的公式转化,很容易就能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。

1) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.

= Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.

2) (错) Harry has got married for six years.

= Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.

显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.

11.13 since的四种用法

1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。

I have been here since 1989.

2) since +一段时间+ ago

I have been here since five months ago.

3) since +从句

Great changes have taken place since you left.

Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.

4) It is +一段时间+ since从句

It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.

11.14 延续动词与瞬间动词

1) 用于完成时的区别

延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。

He has completed the work.  他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果)

I've known him since then.   我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2) 用于till / until从句的差异

延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……,才……"

He didn't come back until ten o'clock.

他到10 点才回来。

He slept until ten o'clock.

他一直睡到10点。

典型例题

1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times.

A. had met B. have met  C. met D. meet

答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。

2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.

---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.

A. have been  B. had been  C. was D. will be

答案A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时。

11.15 过去完成时

1) 概念:表示过去的过去

----|-------|-----|---->其构成是had +过去分词构成。

那时以前  那时 现在

2) 用法

a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

b. 状语从句

在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。

When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。

He said that he had learned some English before.

By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

典型例题

The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.

A. had written, left B,were writing, has left  C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

答案D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正忙于……"这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生。因此

前一句应用过去进行时。

注意: had no … when     还没等…… 就……

had no sooner… than  刚…… 就……

He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

11.16 用一般过去时代替完成时

1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。

When she saw the mouse,she screamed.

My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

2 ) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。

When I heard the news, I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。

Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

11.17 将来完成时

1) 构成will / be going to do sth.

2) 概念

a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。

b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或一获得的经验。

They will have been married for 20 years by then.

You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

11.18 现在进行时

现在进行时的基本用法:

a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。

We are waiting for you.

b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

Mr. Green is writing another novel.

(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.

c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

The leaves are turning red.

It's getting warmer and warmer.

d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

You are always changing your mind.

典型例题

My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it.

A. has lost, don't find   B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found  D. is missing, haven't found.

答案D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然存在,应用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时。

11.19 不用进行时的动词

1) 事实状态的动词

have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue

I have two brothers.

This house belongs to my sister.

2) 心理状态的动词

Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate

I need your help.

He loves her very much.

3 ) 瞬间动词

accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse.

I accept your advice.

4) 系动词

seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn

You seem a little tired.

11.20 过去进行时

1) 概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2) 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语

this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while

My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.

It was raining when they left the station.

When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.

典型例题

1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.

A. made  B. is making  C. was making  D. makes

答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同 时,when表时间的同时性,"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell

答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。

11.21 将来进行时

1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。

She'll be coming soon.

I'll be meeting him sometime in the future.

注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.

2)常用的时间状语

Soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening

By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.

11.22 一般现在时代替将来时

时间状语从句,条件句中,从句用一般现在时代替将来时

When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately

He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。

典型例题

(1)He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment.

A. had not given; had not succeeded  B. would not give; succeed

C. will not give; succeed       D. would not give; will succeed.

答案B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有He said,故为过去式。主句用将来时,故选B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。

(2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动。

The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。(实际上每天如此。)

11.23 一般现在时代替过去时

1 )"书上说","报纸上说"等。

The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow.

报纸上说明天会很冷的。

2) 叙述往事,使其生动。

Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.

11.24 一般现在时代替完成时

1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时:

hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember.

I hear (= have heard) he will go to London.

I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is.

2) 句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"

3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met.

11.25 一般现在时代替进行时

1) 句型:Here comes… ; There goes…

Look, here comes Mr. Li.

11.26 现在进行时代替将来时

1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。

Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗?

We are leaving soon.  我们马上就走。

2) 渐变动词,如:get, run, grow, become, begin及die。

He is dying.

11.27 时态一致

1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或不变的事实,则永远用现在时。

At that time, people did not know that the earth moves.

He told me last week that he is eighteen.

2) 宾语从句中的助动词ought, need, must, dare 时态是不变的。

He thought that I need not tell you the truth.

11.28 时态与时间状语

时间状语

一般现在时  every …, sometimes, at …, on Sunday,

一般过去时  yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now

一般将来时  next…, tomorrow, in+时间,

现在完成时  for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always, recently

过去完成时  before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as

过去进行时  this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while

将来进行时  soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening


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