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英语语法:洪恩语法之名词性从句详解

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2015年01月27日

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If you cannot have the best, make the best of what you have.
如果你不能有最好的,你就充分利用你现有的吧。
17. 名词性从句

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

17.1 引导名词性从句的连接词

引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:

连接词:that,whether,if 不充当从句的任何成分)

连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom,

whose, which.

连接副词:when, where, how, why

不可省略的连词:

1. 介词后的连词

2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。

That she was chosen made us very happy.

We heard the news that our team had won.

比较:whether与if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,whether 不能被if 取代:

1. whether引导主语从句并在句首

2. 引导表语从句

3. whether从句作介词宾语

4. 从句后有"or not"

Whether he will come is not clear.

大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。

It is not important who will go.

It is still unknown which team will win the match.

17.2 名词性that-从句

1)由从属连词that引导的从句叫做名词性that-从句。 That只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性that-从句在句中能充当主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如:

主语:That he is still alive is sheer luck.  他还活着全靠运气。

宾语:John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。

表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently.   事实是近来谁也没有见过他。

同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office.

近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。

形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job.

你对工作满意我感到很高兴。

2)That-从句作主语通常用it作先行词,而将that-从句置于句末,例如:

It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。

It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。

用it作形式主语的that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系:

a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句

It is necessary that…    有必要……

It is important that…    重要的是……

It is obvious that…     很明显……

b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句

It is believed that…     人们相信……

It is known to all that…   从所周知……

It has been decided that…   已决定……

c. It + be +名词+ that-从句

It is common knowledge that…  ……是常识

It is a surprise that…   令人惊奇的是……

It is a fact that…     事实是……

d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句

It appears that…      似乎……

It happens that…      碰巧……

It occurred to me that…   我突然想起……

17.2 名词性that-从句

1)由从属连词that引导的从句叫做名词性that-从句。 That只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性that-从句在句中能充当主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如:

主语:That he is still alive is sheer luck.  他还活着全靠运气。

宾语:John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。

表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently.   事实是近来谁也没有见过他。

同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office.

近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。

形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job.

你对工作满意我感到很高兴。

2)That-从句作主语通常用it作先行词,而将that-从句置于句末,例如:

It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。

It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。

用it作形式主语的that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系:

a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句

It is necessary that…    有必要……

It is important that…    重要的是……

It is obvious that…     很明显……

b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句

It is believed that…     人们相信……

It is known to all that…   从所周知……

It has been decided that…   已决定……

c. It + be +名词+ that-从句

It is common knowledge that…  ……是常识

It is a surprise that…   令人惊奇的是……

It is a fact that…     事实是……

d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句

It appears that…      似乎……

It happens that…      碰巧……

It occurred to me that…   我突然想起……

17.4 if, whether引导的名词从句

1)yes-no型疑问从句

从属连词if, whether引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的,因此也分别被称为yes-no型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和wh-从句的功能相同, 例如:

主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有等证实。

宾语:Let us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. 请让我们知道你是否能在星期五以前把文章写完。

表语:The point is whether we should lend him the money. 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给他。

同位语:They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 他们调查他是否值得信赖。

形容词宾语: She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come.  她怀疑我们是否能够前来。

介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness.  我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。

2)选择性疑问从句

选择性疑问从句由关联词if/whether…or或whethe…or not构成,例如:

Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。

I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。

17.5 否定转移

1) 将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。

I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。

I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。

注意:若谓语动词为hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。

I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。

2) 将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。

It doesn't seem that they know where to go.

看来他们不知道往哪去。

It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.

看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。

3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。

I don't remember having ever seen such a man.

我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not否定动名词短语 having…)

It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street.

在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。

(anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。)

4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。

The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。

He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定because状语) 他并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。

She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个月,这个人的弟弟就看见她了,并对她的美貌着了迷。


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