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被动语态

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  被动语态

  被动语态概述

  语态是动词的一种形式,用以说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。英语的语态共有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般说来,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。汉语往往用“被”、“受”、“给”等词来表示被动意义。如:

  They didn’t offer Ann the job. (主动语态)

  Ann wasn’t offered the job. (被动语态)

  安没得到这份工作。

  被动语态的构成

  被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。被动语态的时态变化只改变be的形式,过去分词部分不变。疑问式和否定式的变化也如此。

  1、被动语态的时态较常见的八种形式

  现以动词clean为例列表说明

  三、被动语态的用法:

  1、不知道或没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者。

  The old bridge was built many years ago. 这座古桥是许多年前建造的。

  He was elected chairman.他被选为主席。

  2、强调动作的承受者。

  动作的执行者由by引导置于谓语动词之后,也可省略。

  Your plan is considered to be the best. 你的计划被认为是最好的。

  3、动作的执行者是无生命的事物。

  The window was blown by wind.窗户被风吹开了。

  The whole village has been washed away by the flood.整个村庄都被洪水冲走了。

  4. 避免更换主语,如:

  Once a promise is made, it shouldn’t be broken. 诺言一旦许下,就不能违背。

  Mothers love their children and children are sure to love their mothers.

  母亲爱孩子,孩子当然也爱母亲了。

  5. 使句子保持平衡,如:

  The lecture will be made by Joe Smith, who is a young artist from the States.

  乔·史密斯将来做报告,他是一位年轻的美国艺术家。

  (Joe Smith有一个非限定性定语从句,所以后置)

  四、主动语态变为被动语态

  转换图示:

  1、主动语态变为被动语态的步骤:

  (1)将主动句的宾语变为主语,如果主动句的宾语是代词,需变为主格。如:

  (2)将动词改为“be+过去分词”,be与新主语的人称和数一致,时态不变。

  (3)将主动语态的主语前加by放在谓语动词后,如果原主语是代词,要变为宾格。

  They held a meeting yesterday. → A meeting was held(by them)yesterday.

  他们昨天开会了。 昨天举行了一个会议。

  They won’t forgive me. → I won’t be forgiven by them.

  他们不会原谅我的。 我不会被他们原谅的。

  2、主动语态变为被动语态的注意事项:

  (1)主动句中的主语如果是people, we, you, they, somebody等含糊地表示“人们”、“大家”等,

  变为被动句时,通常删去“by…”,除非强调原主语。如:

  They set up this hospital in 1975. → This hospital was set up in 1975.

  这所医院建于1975年。

  Only he can finish the job. 只有他能完成这项工作。→

  The job can be finished only by him.这项工作只能由他来完成。

  (2)含有双宾语,即直接宾语和间接宾语的句子,每个宾语都可变为被动语态的主语,即其被动语态

  有两种形式。但多以间接宾语作主语。

  Jack told us the truth.杰克告诉了我们真相。

  We were told the truth by Jack.

  The truth was told (to) us by Jack.

  (3)含有宾语+宾语补足语的句子,变成被动句后原来的宾语补足语就成了主语补足语了;

  注意:不带to的不定式作宾语补足语时,变成被动时要加上to。

  I heart Emily sing the song just now.

  → Emily was heard to sing the song just now.

  我刚才听见艾米莉唱这首歌了。

  (4)含有宾语从句的主动句变为被动句,通常用it作为被动结构的先行主语,把宾语从句后置。

  We have determined that the plan should be carried out soon.

  It has been determined that the plan should be carried out soon.

  我们决定这项计划必须马上实施。

  (5)双重被动结构:

  当某人或物成为两次动作的承受者时,要用双重被动结构。如:

  Parents often ask their children to do too much homework.

  The children are often asked to do too much homework.

  Too much homework is often asked to be done by the children.

  五、各种时态的被动语态举例(以动词do为例)

  1.一般现在时(am/ is/ are +done)

  The classroom is cleaned by the students every day. 学生们每天都打扫教室。

  2.一般过去时(was/ were +done)

  My bike was stolen last night. 我的自行车昨天被偷了。

  When was the book introduced to China? 这本书什么时候引入中国的?

  3.一般将来时与过去将来时(will/ shall be +done; would/should be +done)

  A speech will be given this afternoon. 今天下午有一个演讲。

  I thought thousands of people would be helped. 我认为将有数千人得到帮助。

  4.现在进行时与过去进行时(am/ is/ are being +done; was/ were being +done)

  The machine was being repaired at this time yesterday. 昨天这时,机器正在被修理。

  The problem is being discussed now. 问题正在被讨论。

  A bus is being pushed by the passengers. 路人正在推一辆公共汽车。

  5.现在完成时(have/ has been + done)

  Two hundred trees have been planted by now. 到现在为止,已经种了二百棵树了。

  The book has been read many times by me. 这本书已经被我读了许多遍了。

  Several soldiers have already been killed in the conflict.

  在冲突中已经有几名士兵被杀害。

  6.过去完成时(had been+done)

  They said they had been invited to the party. 他们说已经被邀请参加晚会了。

  She found the house had been destroyed by the storm. 她发现房子已经被暴风雨摧毁。

  He had been tortured by the illness for many years before he died.

  他在去世前已经被疾病折磨很多年了。

  六、高频考点:

  1. 动词的主动形式表示被动之意

  1)某些连系动词,如:look, feel, smell,sound, prove等。

  The flower smells sweet.这花闻起来很香。

  Maria proves very patient and warm-hearted. 玛丽亚被证明很耐心、很热心。

  2)表示主语内在“品质”或“性能”的某些动词,虽然可以是及物动词,但这时用作不及物动词,

  如:lock, shut, close, open, move, read, write, sell, wash, clean, draw, cut,

  translate, burn, run, ride, begin, end, operate等。

  The sentences translate hard. 这些句子很难译。

  The door won’t shut. 这个门关不上。

  3)某些动词用在句型“主+谓+主补”时,如wear,blow,prove等。

  The door blew open. 门被吹开了。

  2. 不用于被动语态的动词

  有些动词用于被动语态,如happen,cost,take,have (有),own,possess, want (缺乏)。

  An accident happened yesterday. 昨天发生了一起事故。

  One should possess courage, determination and wisdom. 人要拥有勇气、决心和智慧。

  3. “动词+反身代词”结构与“be+过去分词”结构

  注意下面短语:

  devote oneself to (献身于) seat oneself (就坐) dress oneself (穿衣),

  amuse oneself (自娱自乐) lose oneself (迷路) prepare oneself for (做好心理准备),

  concern oneself about (担心)

  这些短语经常用被动结构表示主动意义。

  They were seated in the front of the hall. 他们在大厅前部就坐。

  He was concerned about his work. 他担心他的工作。

  All my students are well prepared for the test. 我的学生都为考试做好了准备。

  His mother is dressed in white at the party. 他的妈妈在宴会上穿着白色衣服。

  4. be done与get done

  1)现代英语特别是口语中常用“get + 过去分词”表示被动语态。

  2)“get + 过去分词”只表示动作,而“be+过去分词”既可表动作,也可表状态。

  They have been married for ages. 他们结婚多年了。(不能用get married)

  They got married last month. 他们上个月结婚了。

  3)经过安排、考虑的动作用“be+过去分词”;出乎意料时用“get+过去分词”。

  How did the painting get damaged? 这幅画什么时候被损坏的?

  4)“be+过去分词”是单纯的被动意义,而“get+过去分词”可以暗示主语对动作的发生有一定的责

  任,含有某种主动意味。

  His team got beaten again though they had tried their best.

  虽然他们尽了全力,他的队还是输了。

  5. 几个被动语态常用习惯用法:

  We’re determined to set up an eco-laboratory. 我们决定建立一个生态实验室。

  My time was occupied with children. 我的时间都用在了孩子们身上。

  I’m very interested in fine arts. 我对美术非常感兴趣。

  Where was your grandfather born? 你祖父的出生地是哪里?

  I was graduated from that university ten years ago. 我十年前从那所大学毕业。

  My hometown is situated in the south of China. 我的家乡在中国南部。

  6.It is said/ reported/believed, etc. + 从句的变化:

  “It is said/ reported/believed, etc. + 从句”表示据说/据报道/据信......,此句型可以变成从句主语作主语的句型:sb. +be said/ reported/believed, etc. +不定式。如果原来从句的谓语动作已经完成,不定式用完成式;如果从句的谓语动作是经常性动作或还没有完成,用不定式的一般式。

  It is said that James is an expert on DNA. = James is said to be an expert on DNA.

  人们说詹姆斯是个DNA专家。

  It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. =

  The boy is said to have passed the national exam.

  据说这个男孩已经通过了这次全国性的测试。


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