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异类之不一样的成功启示录 第174期:教育与精神错乱的关系

所属教程:异类:不一样的成功启示录

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2019年03月14日

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There are now more than fifty KIPP schools across the United States, with more on the way.

现在美国已经有50多家KIPP学校,但按照这种趋势发展,将来还会有更多家。

The KIPP program represents one of those promising new educational philosophies in the United States.

这说明,KIPP计划所体现的理念在目前美国是最新和最有前途的。

But it's success is best understood not in terms of its curriculum, its teachers, its resources, or some kind of institutional innovation.

但它的成功并不在于其课程、老师、资源或机构改革上的某些创新,

KIPP is rather an organization that has succeeded by taking the idea of cultural legacies seriously.

而是因为它严肃地采取了传统的思想文化,并最终成功地形成了一个组织。

In the early nineteenth century, a group of reformers set out to establish the system of public education in the United States.

在19世纪的早期,一些改革家在美国开始建立一套公共教育系统,这就是所谓的公立学校。

What passed for public school at the time was a haphazard assortment of locally run, one-room schoolhouses, and overcrowded urban classrooms scattered around the country.

这在当时只是一个偶然的举措,但却产生了大量只有一间房子的校舍和拥挤在市区内的教室,它们分布在整个城市。

In rural areas, school closed in the spring and fall and ran all summer long, so that children could help out in the busy planting and harvesting seasons.

在乡下,学校春天和秋天放假,整个夏天上课,这样孩子们就可以在播种和丰收时帮家里干农活;

In the city, many schools mirrored the long and chaotic schedules of the children's working-class parents.

在城市里,许多学校的日程杂乱无章,这是为了迁就那些上班族家长的时间。

The reformers wanted to make sure that all children went to school and their public school was comprehensive,

改革家们想让所有的孩子都能够上学,公立学校应运而生,

meaning that all children got enough schooling to learn how to read and write and do basic arithmetic and function as productive citizens.

这也意味着所有的孩子都可以获得足够的教育来学习读、写技能和基础的算术知识,同时还学到了作为公民的职责。

But as historian Kenneth Gold has pointed out, the early educational reformers were also tremendously concerned that children not get too much schooling.

但是历史学家肯尼思·戈德指出,早期的教育改革家对孩子们是否能够获得足够教育过于关心。

In 1871, for example, the United States commissioner of education published a report by Edward Jarvis on "the relation of education to Insanity."

比如,1871年,美国教育委员会的爱德华·贾维斯发表了一篇名为《教育与精神错乱的关系》的报告,

Jarvis had studied 1,741 cases of insanity and concluded that "over-study" was responsible for 205 of them.

贾维斯研究了1741例精神错乱,其中有205例是过度学习造成的。

"Education lays the foundation of a large portion of the causes of mental disorder," Jarvis wrote.

因此,“精神错乱的诱因,教育占了大部分。”贾维斯写道。

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