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走进剑桥大学 第20期:颇具争议的克伦威尔

所属教程:走进剑桥大学

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2018年04月22日

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Oliver Cromwell

颇具争议的克伦威尔

Oliver Cromwell was born on 25 April 1599 in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire into a family of minor genre and studied at Cambridge University. He became member of parliament for Huntingdon in the parliament of 1628-1629. In the 1630s Cromwell experienced a religious crisis and became convinced that he would be guided to carry out God's purpose. He began to make his name as a radical Puritan.
奥利弗克伦威尔1599年4月25日出生于英国剑桥郡亨廷顿的一个小贵族家庭,求学于剑桥大学。他在1628—1629年议会中成为亨廷顿议会的议员。17世纪30年代,克伦威尔经历了一次宗教危机,而后他开始相信他将受到指引,执行上帝的意愿。克伦威尔开始以激进的清教徒身份而闻名。
Civil war broke out between Charles I and parliament in 1642. Although Cromwell lacked military experience, he created and led a superb force of cavalry, the ‘Ironsides’, and rose from the rank of captain to that of lieutenant-general in three years. He convinced parliament to establish a professional army, the New Model Army, which won the decisive victory over the king’s forces at Naseby (1645). The king’s alliance with the Scots and his subsequent defeat in the Second Civil War convinced Cromwell that the king must be brought to justice. He was a prime mover in the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649 and subsequently sought to win conservative support for the new republic by suppressing radial elements in the army. Cromwell became army commander and lord lieutenant of Ireland, where he crushed resistance with the massacres at Drogheda and Wexford (1649).
1642年国王查理一世和议会的矛盾激化,英国内战爆发。虽然克伦威尔缺乏军事经验,但他创建并带领了一支优秀的骑兵部队“勇敢之人”,仅用了3年,就从上尉升至中将。他说服议会组建一支专业军队一新模范军。1645年,新模范军在纳西比与国王军队的交锋中取得决定性胜利。国王和苏格兰的结盟以及国王随后在二次内战中的败北让克伦威尔坚信国王必须要归案受审。克伦威尔推动了1649年对查理一世的审判和处决。随后,为了新共和国,他镇压军中的激进力量,以寻求保守势力的支持。1649 年,克伦威尔成为军队总司令和爱尔兰总督。他在德洛格达和韦克斯福德实施大屠杀,镇压爱尔兰的抵抗。
Cromwell then defeated the supporters of the king’s son Charles II at Dunbar and Worcester, effectively ending the civil war. In 1653, frustrated with lack of progress, he dissolved the rump of the Long Parliament and, after the failure of his Puritan convention made himself lord protector. At home, Cromwell reorganised the national church, established Puritanism readmitted Jews into Britain and supported over a certain degree of religious tolerance. Abroad, he ended the war with Portugal and Holland and allied with France against Spain, defeating the Spanish at the Battle of the Dunes.
克伦威尔随后在登巴和沃塞斯特击败了国王的儿子查理二世,高效地结束了内战。1653年,长期议院的清教徒大会推举克伦威尔为护国公遭到失败,而后他苦于没有进展解散了长期议院。对内,克伦威尔重组了英国教会,建立了清教,重新接纳犹太人到英国来,并支持一定程度上的宗教宽容。对外,他结束了英国和葡萄牙、 荷兰的战争,并和法国结盟对抗西班牙,最终在沙丘战役中击败了西班牙.
In 1658 he was struck by a sudden bout of malarial fever, followed directly by illness of a urinary complaint.He died on 3 September, 1658, When the Royalists returned to power in 1661,Oliver Cromwell’s body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was hung in chains and beheaded. Symbolically, this took place on 30 January; the same date that Charles I had been executed.
1658年,克伦威尔被一次突发的疟疾高烧袭倒,紧随高烧而来的是泌尿系统的并发症。他于1658年9月3日辞世。当1661年保皇党成员重新掌权后,奥利弗克伦威尔的尸体被人从威斯敏斯特教堂掘出,人们还用铁链吊起他的尸体,并进行“斩首”。 具有象征性意味的是,这发生在1月30日,和查理一世被处死是同一天。

 

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