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注意分清是关系代词还是人称代词

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  按理说,关系代词与人称代词无论在语义方面还是用法方面,都有很大的区别,一般是不会发生混淆的。但是,许多同学在做题时往往是“跟着感觉走”,而忽略对句子结构的分析,同时命题者也常常抓住考生这一毛病,就此设题,结果许多考生掉入陷阱。请看下面一题:

  My friend showed me round the town, ________ was very kind of him.

  A. which B. that C. where D. it

  对于这道题,很显然,B和C不能选,因为that不用于引导非限制性定语从句,而where是关系副词,只用作状语,不用作主语,所以这两者很容易被排除。但是,在A和D之间,该选哪一个呢?许多同学选了人称代词it,因为It was very kind of him读起来“太有感觉了”,语感“太正常了”;但是,很遗憾,选it错了。正确答案是A,即应选关系代词which。为什么呢?

  这要从英语的句子结构说起。根据英语语法,如果从结构上看,英语句子可分为简单句、并列句和复合句三类(若包括并列复合句,则为四类)。

  所谓简单句,就是只有一个主谓结构。如:

  Our dog likes catching biscuits in its mouth. 我们的狗喜欢用嘴接饼干。

  所谓并列句,就是指由并列连词连接的两个或多个主谓结构。如:

  We parted, and we haven’t met since. 我们分手了,以后再也没有见面。

  At first they were happy, but things soon started to go wrong. 起初他们在一起很快乐,但不久就开始出问题了。

  所谓复合句,就是指包括一个主句和一个(或几个)从句的句子。如:

  He answered that he knew nothing about it. 他回答说他不知情。(that引导的是宾语从句)

  It is an organization which helps the elderly. 这是一个帮助老年人的机构。(which引导的是定语从句)

  He’ll have four years at university after he leaves school. 他中学毕业后要上四年大学。(after引导的是时间状语从句)

  所谓并列复合句,简单地说就是含有复合句的并列句。如:

  John wanted to go to the party, but his wife said she was too tired. 约翰想去参加晚会,但他的妻子说她太累了。(but连接两个句句子构成并列句,而but后的句子中又是一个含有宾语从句的复合句)

  有了上面的句子结构知识,我们就来分析上面这道考题为什么该用which不用it了。现在请看这两个句子:

  My friend showed me round the town, which was very kind of him.

  My friend showed me round the town, it was very kind of him.

  第一句用which之所以是正确的,是因为which在此引导非限制性定语从句,整个句子为一个含有定语从句的复合句;而第二句用it之所以不正确,是因为这个句子不属于上面提到的任何一种句型:首先,它不是简单句,因为它有两个主谓结构;其次,它也不是并列句,因为句子间没有并列连词;第三,它也不是复合句,因为句子间没有体现出主句和从句;第四,它更不是并列复合句,因为它既不是复合句,也不是并列句。

  通过这样的分析,同学们应该知道上面这个句子用it为什么是错误的了。假若要想保留人称代词it,又要使句子不错,也有另外一个办法,就是在it之前加上一个并列连词,使之成为并列句。如说成:

  My friend showed me round the town, and it was very kind of him.

  现在同学们应该搞清楚了吧。下面请再看一道考题:

  She brought with her three friends, none of ________ I had ever met before.

  A. them B. who C. whom D. these

  这道题是用them还是whom?套用上面的分析,我们可以很容易地确定答案为C,而不是A。但是,如果我们把题目稍为改变一下呢?如改成:

  She brought with her three friends, and none of ________ I had ever met before.

  A. them B. who C. whom D. these

  这道题的答案就不能是whom,而应是them了。当然,选these在语法上也是对的,只是意思上不是很通顺,相比较而言,显然不如用them好。

  最后再来看一个很典型的例子:

  Simon loves you, ________ is why he wants to be with you.

  A. it B. that C. which D. what

  由于that’s why…是同学们非常熟悉的句式,所以许多人可能会毫不犹豫地选B。又错了!最佳答案应是C。首先,由于句子间没有并列连词,所以排除A和B;又因为what不是关系代词,不能引导定语从句,所以也不能选。注意,如果在两个句子间加上并列连词and,或将其中的逗号改为破折号或分号,则可用that,如以下三句都是正确的:

  Simon loves you—that’s why he wants to be with you.

  Simon loves you and that’s why he wants to be with you.

  Simon loves you; that’s why he wants to be with you.

  【小练一下】

  01. That bar on Milton Street, ______ by the way is very nice, is owned by Trevor’s brother.

  A. that B. how C. which D. what

  02. She says it’s Charlotte’s fault, ______ is rubbish, and that she blames her.

  A. that B. how C. which D. what

  03. Anyway, that evening, ______ I’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel’s place.

  A. that B. how C. which D. what

  04. Dust particles must have got into the motor, ______ is why it isn’t working properly.

  A. it B. that C. which D. what

  05. I’m afraid he’s more of a talker than a doer, ______ is why he never finishes anything.

  A. it B. that C. which D. what

  06. He asked a lot of questions, none of ______ was easy to answer.

  A. which B. them C. what D. that

  07. He told me that he had two girl-friends, neither of ______ knew anything about the other.

  A. whom B. them C. which D. who

  【答案与解析】

  01. C。引导非限制性定语从句且指事物时,要用关系代词which,而不能用that;而how和what不是关系词,均不能引导定语从句,故可排除B和D。

  02. C。引导非限制性定语从句且指事物时,要用关系代词which,而不能用that;而how和what不是关系词,均不能引导定语从句,故可排除B和D。

  03. C。引导非限制性定语从句且指事物时,要用关系代词which,而不能用that;而how和what不是关系词,均不能引导定语从句,故可排除B和D。

  04. C。由于句子间没有并列连词,所以排除A和B;又因为what不是关系代词,不能引导定语从句,所以也不能选。

  05. C。由于句子间没有并列连词,所以排除A和B;又因为what不是关系代词,不能引导定语从句,所以也不能选。

  06. A。由于介词后不能接关系代词that,排除D;而them和what不是关系代词,不用于引导定语从句,也被排除。none of which在此引导非限制性定语从句,其意为“所有这些问题都不”。

  07. A。由于介词后不能接关系代词who,排除D;而them不是关系代词,不用于引导定语从句,也被排除;至于which,它只用于指事物,不用于指人,也被排除。neither of whom在此引导非限制性定语从句,其意为“她们两人都不”。


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