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肺癌患者指南

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2019年08月13日

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A Patient's Guide to Lung Cancer

肺癌患者指南

According to the American Cancer Society, 228,150 new cases of lung cancer (116,440 in men and 111,710 in women), are expected to be diagnosed in 2019, making it the second most common cancer in both men and women (not counting skin cancer). And it’s a deadly cancer – about 142,670 people are expected to die of the disease (76,650 men and 66,020 women) in 2019.

根据美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)的数据,预计2019年将有228,150例肺癌新病例(男性116,440例,女性111,710例)被诊断出来,使其成为男性和女性第二大常见癌症(不包括皮肤癌)。这是一种致命的癌症——2019年预计将有142670人死于这种疾病(76650名男性和66020名女性)。

Signs and Symptoms

信号和症状

肺癌患者指南

Lung cancer typically does not offer many signs of its presence early on, which makes detecting it in its most treatable stages a difficult undertaking. Among those who do have symptoms, the most common ones, according to the American Cancer Society, are:

肺癌通常不会在早期表现出很多症状,这使得在其最可治疗的阶段发现它是一项艰巨的任务。根据美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)的数据,在那些确实有症状的人中,最常见的症状是:

· A cough that does not go away or gets worse.

不会消失或恶化的咳嗽。

· Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm).

咳出血或铁锈色的痰(痰或痰)。

· Chest pain that is often worse with deep breathing, coughing or laughing.

胸痛,通常随着深呼吸,咳嗽或大笑而更加严重。

· Hoarseness.

声音嘶哑。

· Weight loss and loss of appetite.

体重减轻和食欲不振。

· Shortness of breath.

呼吸短促

· Feeling tired or weak.

感到疲倦和虚弱

· Infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia that don’t go away or keep coming back.

如支气管炎和肺炎一样的感染,不会消失或不断复发。

· New onset of wheezing.

·新发作的喘息。

肺癌患者指南

Lung cancer does not discriminate based on sex or race, but the primary risk factor for developing the disease is a history of smoking. Carbone says 85 percent of lung cancer patients smoked at some point in their lives, and the National Cancer Institute reports smokers have a 20 times greater risk for developing the disease than nonsmokers.

肺癌不会因性别或种族而受到歧视,但吸烟史是导致肺癌的主要风险因素。卡蓬说,85%的肺癌患者在他们生命的某个阶段吸烟,国家癌症研究所报告说,吸烟者比不吸烟者患肺癌的风险高20倍。

But it’s important to note that not all smokers will develop lung cancer, and not all lung cancer patients were smokers. Environmental exposure to inhaled carcinogens – substances that can cause cancer – and toxins such as air pollution are likely to blame for the 15 percent or so of lung cancers that occur in people who never smoked. Exposure to radon and radiation are two common contributors to the development of lung cancer.

但值得注意的是,并不是所有的吸烟者都会患肺癌,也不是所有的肺癌患者都是吸烟者。暴露在可吸入的致癌物(致癌物质)和有毒物质(如空气污染)的环境中,从不吸烟的人可能有15%左右的几率患肺癌。氡和辐射是引起肺癌的两种常见因素。

Regular screening

定期检查

Regular screening for lung cancer is not yet a common occurrence, although people who currently or formerly smoked heavily are encouraged to monitor the health of their lungs, especially if they won’t or can’t quit smoking. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Forcerecommends annual screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT scanning) for adults 55 to 80 who have a 30-pack-a-year smoking history and currently smoke, or those who quit smokingwithin the past 15 years. Your pack-year figure is calculated by multiplying the number of packs of cigarettes you smoke or smoked daily by the number of years you have smoked. For example, if you smoked a pack a day for 30 years, your pack-year rate would be 30. The higher the number, the higher your risk of developing lung cancer.

肺癌的定期检查还不是很常见,尽管目前或以前大量吸烟的人被鼓励监测自己的肺部健康状况,特别是如果他们不愿意或不能戒烟的话。美国预防服务工作组建议每年对55到80岁的成年人进行低剂量计算机断层扫描(CT扫描),这些人有一年30包的吸烟史,并且目前正在吸烟,或者那些在过去15年内戒烟的人。您的年包数字是通过将您吸烟的包数或每天吸烟的数量乘以您吸烟的年数计算得出的。例如,如果你连续30年每天抽一包烟,那么你的年包费率将是30。这个数字越高,你患肺癌的风险就越高。

Diagnosis

诊断

To diagnose lung cancer, your doctor will use X-ray or CT imaging to get a better look at your lungs. If a suspicious mass or tumor is found, your doctor may recommend additional imaging such as a PET (or positron emission tomography) scan or lung endoscopy, in which your doctor will use a scope to get a look inside your airways. A biopsy will remove a tissue sample which can then be tested to determine whether the mass is cancerous.

要诊断肺癌,医生会使用x光或CT成像来更好地检查你的肺部。如果发现可疑的肿块或肿瘤,医生可能会建议进行额外的影像学检查,如PET(或正电子发射断层扫描)扫描或肺内窥镜检查,医生将使用内窥镜检查你的气道。活组织检查将移除组织样本,然后进行检测,以确定肿块是否癌变。


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