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课本中不会教你的[S]595 say,speak,talk,tell和address

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2019年02月08日

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595 say,speak,talk,tell和address

① say是及物动词,着重说的具体内容,强调说什么,必须有宾语,可以是从句,从句可以是直接引语,也可以是间接引语。say构成的常用短语有:

say a few words说几句话

say something in English用英语讲点什么

say goodbye to向……告别

say nothing to sb. 对某人什么也不说

say hello to sb. 向某人问好

say something about说点关于……的事情

Can you say it in English?你能用英语说吗?

What did you say just now?你刚才说了什么?

I said nothing to her. 我对她什么也没说。

② speak常用作不及物动词,着重开口讲话,强调发出声音或运用语言的能力,不强调所说的内容;作及物动词用时,speak常以语言名词作宾语,如speak English(说英语),speak French(说法语)等。speak to/with sb.意为“对某人讲话”,speak to sb. about sth.意为“同某人讲关于……的情况”。speak后不可跟从句。

Please speak slowly and clearly. 请说慢点,讲清楚。

The child can't speak yet. 这孩子还不会说话。

She can speak Japanese and some other languages. 她能说日语和其他几种语言。

The teacher is speaking to Tom's father about his studies at school. 老师在同汤姆的父亲谈汤姆在校的学习情况。

She is speaking loudly to the children. 她在向孩子们大声讲话。

比较

用中文说

speak it in Chinese

say it in Chinese

He spoke that he would come.

He said that he would come.

他说他要来。

说中文

say Chinese

speak Chinese

提示

speak还可表示“说实话,说心里话”等。

Please tell her to speak her thought out. 请告诉她把自己的想法说出来。

She has spoken the truth to him. 她向他讲了实情。

Finally Mary spoke her mind. 最后,玛丽说出了心里话。

③ talk是不及物动词,意为“说话,交谈”,表示进行对话、讨论、交换意见等。结构为:

talk with/to sb. 同某人谈话

talk about/over sth. 谈论某事

talk to sb. about sth. 同某人谈论某事

比较

He talked to her. 他同她谈话。

He spoke to her. 他对她讲话。

They talked for a long time. 他们谈了很长时间。

She is talking with her mother. 她在同她母亲谈话。

He talked to me about the book yesterday. 他昨天同我谈论了那本书。

They are talking over an important matter. 他们在讨论一件重要事情。

④ tell是及物动词,意为“告诉”,表示向他人讲述某件事、某个故事等。结构为:

tell sb. sth. 告诉某人某事(双宾语)

tell sb. about sth. 告诉某人关于某事

tell sth. to sb. 把……告诉某人

tell sb. to do sth. 告诉某人做某事

比较

tell还可表示“区别,判断”。

I can't tell her from her sister. 我难以把她和她妹妹区分开。

I can't tell which is better. 我不能判断哪一个更好。

Please tell the difference between the two. 请说明两者之间的差异。  He is good at telling stories. 他善于讲故事。

Don't tell lies. 不要说谎。

Please tell me her name. 请告诉我她的名字。

She told us about her early life. 她告诉我们关于她早年的生活。

他告诉孩子们进教室。

He said the children to go into the classroom.

He told the children to go into the classroom.

⑤ address用于书面语,表示“向……致词;演说;称呼”。

The president will address the meeting. 总统将向大会致词/发表演说。

Please don't address me as CEO. 请不要称我总裁。(=Please don't call me CEO.)


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