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第23章 状 语 23.5 状语从句





23.5 状语从句

23.5.1 时间状语从句

1) 英语中有大量的时间状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Time),多由连词引导(关于这类连词可参阅第17.2.1节):

When she pressed the button the lift stopped. 她一按电钮电梯就停住了。

As the sun rose, the fog dispersed. 太阳升起时雾消散了。

While the discussion was going on, George came in. 讨论正在进行时乔治进来了。

All things are difficult before they are easy. (谚)凡事总是先难后易。

I found the letter long after he had gone away. 他走了好久之后我才发现那封信。

I will return the book as soon as I have read it. 书一看完我就还回来。

I have had another baby since I saw you last. 自上次见到你之后我又有了一个宝宝。

On and on he went, till (until) he reached the outskirts of the wood. 他走了又走,直到走到林子边。

Come and talk to me whenever you feel lonely. 凡你感到寂寞时就来和我说说话。

Once you've finished, go to bed. 你一干完就去睡觉。

Now (that) you mention it, I do remember the incident. 有你这么一提,我的确想起了这事。

2) 还有一些时间状语不由连词引导:

He came directly I called. 我一叫他就来了。

You ought to come and see us next time you are home. 下次回家你要来看我们。

She demands sweets every time she sees me. 她每次见到我都要糖吃。

He felt a thrill the moment he got into the theatre. 他一走进剧场就感到十分激动。

I left immediately the clock struck twelve. 钟一敲十二点我就动身了。

He had no sooner reached the door than he came back. 他刚到门口又走了回来。

He had hardly arrived when it began to snow. 他刚一到就开始下雪了。

23.5.2 条件状语从句

1) 条件状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Condition)主要由if或unless引导:

If I had been less cautious, I might have been more wise. 要是我不那么谨慎,也许我还明智一点。

If I were you, I'dgo to night school. 我要是你,我会去上夜校。

We can't exercise our influence unless we have an organ. 除非我们有一份刊物,否则我们不能发挥我们的影响力。

They have a meeting every Friday, unless there is nothing to discuss. 他们每星期五开一次会,除非没有事情可商谈。

2) 条件状语从句还可以由其他连词或起连词作用的短语引导:

Supposing (that) you are wrong, what will you do? 假定你是错的,你怎么办?

Suppose you had a million pounds, how would you spend it? 设想你有一百万英镑,你会怎么花呢?

You may go out providing you do your homework first. 如果你先把作业做了,那就可以出去玩。

She may come with us provided (that) she arrives in time. 如果她及时到达,她可以和我们一道去。

I'm going to expose him even if he is a relative of mine. 即使他是我的亲戚,我也要揭发他。

In case the house burns down, we'll get the insurance money. 如果房子烧毁,我们会领到保险金。

You can go out, as long as you promise to be back before 11 o'clock. 只要你答应十一点钟前回来,你可以出去。

You may borrow the book, on condition that you don't lend it to anyone else.你可以借这本书,条件是别把它借给别人。

Granted that he's not brilliant, he is at least competent and works hard. 就算他不够出色,他至少称职,而且工作努力。

I show everything on my face, whether I'm angry or pleased. 不管是生气还是高兴,我什么都表现在脸上。

3) 由if引导的条件状语从句,有时可把if省略,而把从句的语序倒装:

Were it not for their assistance, we would be in serious difficulty. 如果不是他们帮忙,我们会陷入严重的困境。

Had we made adequate preparations, we might have succeeded. 如果我们做了充分的准备,我们或许就成功了。

Should she call, what would you tell her? 万一她来电话,你怎么对她说?

Had it not been for the reservoir, we'dnever have been able to beat the drought. 要不是有水库,我们绝不可能战胜这次旱灾。

23.5.3 目的状语从句和结果状语从句

1) 目的状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Purpose)主要由that,so that,est,for fear that,in case等引导:

My father has bought me a bicycle so (in order) that I can get to school quickly. 我爸给我买了辆自行车,以便我能快速赶到学校。

They spoke in whispers lest they should be heard. 他们低声说话,以防被人听见。

Shut the window for fear that it may rain. 把窗子关上以防下雨。

I shall stay in the hotel all day in case there is news of Henry. 我将一整天待在旅馆里以防有享利的消息。

I'll show you so you can see how it's done. 我将做给你看以便你知道怎样做。

We have so arranged matters that one of us is always on duty. 我们作了这样的安排,以便我们总有一个人在值班。

2) 结果状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Result)主要由so that,so...that,such...that,that等引导:

So many people came to the concert that some couldn't get in. 那么多人来听音乐会,以致有些人没法进来。

She's so ill (that) she can't get out of bed. 她病得很重,都下不了床了。

It was such a cold night that we stayed at home. 那是一个非常寒冷的夜晚,我们都待在家里。

What was the matter with the fellow that he looked so happy? 那人怎么回事,看起来这样高兴?

The situation is such that agreement is unlikely. 局势是这样,达成协议的可能性不大。

There was such a draught, it is no wonder he caught a cold. 过堂风这样厉害,难怪他感冒了。

He is such a marvellous joker (that) you can't help laughing. 他的笑话讲得那样出色,你会禁不住哈哈大笑的。

I'm so busy, I have no time to write a letter. 我忙极了,没时间写信。

3) otherwise,or else或else也可引导从句,表示后果:

She had intellect, otherwise I would have scorned her. 她很聪明,否则我早就瞧不起她了。

Run or else you'll be late. 快跑,否则你就会迟到了。

Drink this, else you will be sick. 把这喝掉,否则你会生病。


23.5.4 原因状语从句

1) 原因状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Reason)主要由because,as,ince,in case等引导:

I did it because I was angry. 我这样做是因为我生气。

As she had a passion for walking, we started off on foot. 由于她酷爱走路,我们就步行出发了。

As you make your bed, so you must lie on it. 你是自作自受。

Since they've forgotten to phone me, I'll have to phone them. 既然他们忘了给我打电话,我就得给他们打了。

Since I haven't got her address, I can't write to her. 由于没有她的地址,我没法给她写信。

She ought to come down just in case anything happened. 她应当下来,以防发生什么情况。

Seeing he refused to help us, there's no reason why we should now help him. 既然他以前拒绝帮助我们,我们现在也没有理由去帮助他。

Considering he's only just started, he knows quite a lot about it. 鉴于他才刚刚开始,他对此已懂得相当多了。

2) 某些“be+形容?”结构后的从句也说明原因:

I'm glad (that) he's feeling better. 我很高兴他感觉好点了。

I'm awfully sorry that this has occurred. 发生了这事我非常抱歉。

You should feel very proud that you have been chosen. 你被选上了,你应该感到很骄傲。

He's annoyed that nobody believes him. 他很生气没人相信他。

They are very disappointed that she can't stay longer. 他们很失望她不能再待久些。

I'm surprised he didn't come. 他没来,我感到吃惊。

He was ashamed that he had lied. 他很羞愧,他撒谎了。

I was delighted that you were successful. 你成功了我很高兴。


23.5.5 让步状语从句

1) 让步状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Concession)主要由although,though,while,whereas等连词引导,表示“虽?”、“尽?”这类意思:

Although she was tired, she stayed up to watch the late night film on television. 虽然她很累,她还是熬夜看电视上的午夜电影。

Though he had very little money, he always managed to dress smartly. 虽说他没几个钱,却总是穿得时髦潇洒。

She still loved him even though he had treated her so badly. 尽管他待她那样差,她还是爱他。

I wouldn't do it, even if you paid me a thousand pounds. 即使你付我一千英镑,我也不干这事。

Some praised him, whereas others condemned him. 有些人赞扬他,而另一些人却谴责他。

2) 还有一些其他类型的让步状语从句:

You won't be heard, however loudly you shout. 不管你喊得多响,没人会听见你的声音。

Wherever he is he will be thinking of you. 不管在那里,他都会想着你。

Whoever you are, you can't pass this way. 不管你是谁,都不能从这里通过。

So don't lose heart, whatever you do. 因此不管你干什么,都不要气馁。

She was going to be a singer no matter what difficulties she met. 她决心成为一名歌手,不管遇到什么困难。

You can't go in no matter who you are. 不管你是谁,都不能进去。

He had to get the car no matter how much it cost. 不管花多少钱,他都要买这辆车。

I'll do it whether you like it or not. 这事我得干,不管你喜不喜欢。

Much as I would like to come, I can't. 虽说我很想来,但我来不了。

Try as I would, I couldn't prevail upon him to change his mind. 不管费多大劲,我都无法劝说他改变注意。

Poor as he was, he was honest. 他虽然贫穷却很诚实。

He was unable to make much progress, hard as he tried. 尽管他作了努力,却不能取得多大进步。

Exhausted though she was, there was no hope of her being able to sleep. 尽管疲惫不堪,她却毫无能够入睡的希望。

Come what may, he would never let her down. 不管发生什么情况,他绝不会做对不起她的事。


23.5.6 方式状语从句

1) 方式状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Manner)主要由as,like,as if,as though等引导:

I did as he asked. 我照他要求的那样做了。

Robbie didn't feel as she did. 罗比没有她那种感觉。

Do it like he does. 照他那样做。

She looked a bit queer, as if she knew something. 她看起来有点怪,仿佛她知道什么似的。

She closed her eyes as though she too were tired. 她闭上眼睛,就像她也累了似的。

2) 这类状语间或也不用连词引导:

They didn't do it the way we do now. 他们以前的做法和我们现在不一样。

You can travel how you please. 你愿意怎么旅行都行。

Arrange the hours however you like. 你怎么安排时间都行。

She's behaving the same way her elder sister used to. 她的表现和她姐姐过去的表现一样。


23.5.7 地点状语从句

1) 地点状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Place)主要由where,wherever和anywhere引导:

Cross the stream where it is shallowest. (谚)在最浅的地方过河。

Where I live there are plenty of sheep. 我住的地方(绵)羊很多。

We'll go wherever you say. 你说到哪儿我们就到哪儿。

You can go anywhere you want. 你想去哪里就可以去哪里。

Everywhere they appeared there were ovations. 不管他们在哪里出现,人们都热烈鼓掌。

2) where引导的从句,除了表示地方外,还可以表示处境等,可有各种灵活译法:

He signed to Janey to stay where she was. 他给简妮打手势,让她待在原处。

It's your fault that she is where she is. 她今天这样是你的错。

Where others are weak, he is strong. 别人的弱点正是他的优势。

Where bees are, there is honey. 有蜂就有蜜。


23.5.8 比较状语从句

比较状语从句(Adverbial Clauses of Comparison)主要由than或as引导:

He earns less than his wife (does). 他挣的钱比他妻子少。

She knows more than I did at her age. 她知道的东西比我在她这年龄时知道的要多。

It was more expensive than I thought. 它比我想的要贵。

He is as tall as his father. 他和他父亲一般高。

Manslaughter is not as (so) bad as murder. 过失杀人罪没有谋杀罪那样严重。

I haven't done as much as I should have liked. 我做的没有我希望的那么好。



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