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高中语法专练:i. 独立主格结构的构成及类型

所属教程:全新高中英语语法专练

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2020年09月09日

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i. 独立主格结构的构成及类型

1. 构成:名词/代词+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语=逻辑主语+逻辑谓语/表语。

He went out quickly, a baby in his arms. (= a baby was in his arms) .

他匆忙出去了,怀里抱着一个婴儿。

The old woman came in, her son following her . (=her son followed her) .

老妇人进来了,她儿子尾随着她。

2. 作用:相当于状语从句,表示方式或伴随的状态或动作;有时也表示时间、原因、条件 。

It being Sunday, you needn't go to school. (表原因)

今天是星期天,你不必去上学。

All the officials having arrived, the meeting was declared open. (表时间)

官员们都到齐了,宣布开会。

Weather permitting ,we'll go to the Summer Palace. (表条件)

天气允许的话,我们去颐和园。

The guards stood at attention, guns on shoulders . (表伴随)

卫兵立正站着,肩膀扛着枪。

He came out, umbrella in hand . (表伴随)

他出来了,手里拿着伞。

3. 独立主格的结构类型:

1)名词/代词+现在分词(具有主动意义)

She watered the flowers, her child feeding the birds .

她在浇花,她的孩子在喂鸟。

The storm having destroyed their house, they had to live in a cave.

暴风雨毁了他们的房子,他们只好住在山洞里。

2)名词/代词+过去分词(具有被动意义)

He lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head.

他仰卧在那里,双手交叉放在头下面。

The table set , we can have dinner at once.

桌子摆好了,我们可以马上吃饭了。

Everything taken into consideration , her plan seems to be more reasonable.

把一切考虑在内的话,她的计划似乎更合理。

3)名词/代词+形容词

He entered the room, his nose red with cold.

他进了房间,鼻子冻得通红。

4)名词/代词+不定式

Here are the first two books, the third one to come out next month.

给你前两本书,第三本下个月出版。

5)名词/代词+介词短语

He came in, book in hand (= with a book in his hand).

他进来了,手里拿着书本。

注意: 在这个结构中,如使用with,名词前要加物主代词和冠词;如不使用with,则名词前省略物主代词和冠词。且该结构不能加being。

6)名词/代词+副词

He was crying inside the house, his sister outside.

他在房子里面哭泣,他的妹妹在外面。

7)There being结构

There being nothing to do , we had to go home earlier than usual.

由于无事可做,我们只好比往常早点回家了。

He stole a toy in the supermarket, there being nobody around.

他在超市里偷了一个玩具,周围没有一个人。

4. “with +宾语+补语”=“with + 独立主格结构”表示伴随、原因或条件。

With the old man leading the way , we started toward the mountains.

由那位老人领路,我们开始向山区出发了。

He came in, with his daughter supporting him.

他进来了,女儿搀扶着他。

With this problem solved, the meeting was over.

此问题解决了,会议结束了。

Tian An Men looks more beautiful, with all lights on.

所有灯亮了,天安门看起来更美丽了。

专项练习

1. It _______ heavily, the game had to be delayed.

A. was snowing

B. snowing

C. snowed

D. had snowed

2. _______ , the lecture began.

A. The listeners having taken their seats

B. Having taken their seats

C. Taking their seats

D. The listeners to take their seats

3. _______ , Tom went out to play.

A. There was nothing to do

B. There had nothing to do

C. As there had nothing to do

D. There being nothing to do

4. _______ , the leaves are beginning _______.

A. Autumn comes; to fail

B. Autumn coming; to fail

C. As autumn coming; failing

D. Autumn to come; failing

5. _______ , the patient can leave the hospital.

A. Better conditions

B. Conditions better

C. Conditions are better

D. Being better conditions

6. _______ , the patient can leave the hospital.

A. If better conditions

B. If conditions better

C. If conditions are better

D. Being better conditions

7. _______ , we'd like to go outing.

A. Being Sunday

B. Sunday OK

C. Sunday is OK

D. If Sunday OK

8. _______ , we'd like to go outing.

A. If Sunday is OK

B. Sunday being OK

C. Sunday OK

D. A, B and C

9. _______ , you can wait a while.

A. The play being still on

B. The play still on

C. Being still on the play

D. A and B

10. _______ , so you can wait a while.

A. The play is still on

B. The play being still on

C. As the play is still on

D. The play still on

答案速查 1-5 BADBB 6—10 CBDDA


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