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> 英语语法 > 高考英语语法强化训练 >  第72篇

特殊句式(强调、倒装、省略及其他)考点 省略和替代

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2021年11月27日

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考点6 省略和替代

省略和替代这两种语言现象一般出现在上下文相同的语境中,目的是让句子言简意赅,避免重复。

1. 省略

(1)复合句的省略

1)状语从句由although/though, as if, until, once, unless, when, whether, where, while等引导,且同时具备下列两个条件:主句和从句的主语一致,或从句主语为it;从句的主要动词是be的某种形式,则从句中的主语和be动词常可省略。

When completed, the museum will be open to the public next year.(=When the museum is completed...)

明年当博物馆竣工时,将会对公众开放。

He’ll go to the seaside for his holiday if possible.(=... if it is possible.)

如果可能的话,他会去海边度假。

2)比较状语从句中的省略。

I’m taller than he.(=... than he is tall.)我比他高。

The higher the temperature, the greater the pressure.

(=...the temperature is, ... the pressure is.)

温度越高,压力越大。

3)某些虚拟语气的句子可以省略should。虚拟条件句有时可以省略if,从句使用倒装。

I suggest that he study more English before going abroad.

(=... that he should study...)

我建议他出国之前学习更多英语。

Were I you, I would go with her.

(=If I were you, ...)

如果我是你,我会和她一起去。

4)宾语从句中的连接词that和限制性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词that, which, whom常可省略。

I think(that)you are wrong. 我认为你是错误的。

She is the woman(who/whom/that)we are talking about.

她就是我们正在谈论的那位女士。

(2)并列句的省略

为使句子简洁,在无损句子完整的前提下常省略相同成分。

He often regards English as easy and(he often regards)French as difficult.

他经常认为英语简单,法语难。

I could have stayed home, but I didn’t(stay home).

我原本可以待在家里,但是我没有。

(3)(简单句)习惯省略

1)对话语境中前后省略。

—How are you? 你好吗?

—(I’m)Fine. 很好。

2)介词in, from等在搭配中的省略。

He spends his evening(in)studying Chinese. 他晚上学习汉语。

They are busy(in)cleaning the room. 他们正忙着打扫房间。

We could stop them(from)moving the heavy box.

我们可以阻止他们挪动这个笨重的箱子。

类似省略情况还有:

· waste no time(in)doing sth. 赶紧做某事

· succeed(in)doing sth. 成功地做了某事

· have difficulty(in)doing sth. 做某事有困难

· have no trouble(in)doing sth. 做某事很顺利

· keep sb.(from)doing sth. 阻止某人做某事

· prevent sb.(from)doing sth. 阻止某人做某事

3)省略不定式符号to,不定式作动词make/let以及感官动词的宾语补足语时要省略to,但变成被动语态不能省略。

The boss made the workers work all day and all night. 老板让这些工人日夜工作。

The workers were made to work all day and all night. 工人们被迫日夜工作。

4)在密切联系的语境中,为避免重复,作宾语或宾语补足语的不定式只保留to。

Don’t touch anything unless your teacher tells you to.

除非老师要求,否则不要碰任何东西。

—Did you invite him to the party? 你邀请他参加聚会了吗?

—Yes, I’d tried to, but he refused to. 是的,我竭力邀请他,但是他拒绝了。

2. 替代

替代有三种:名词性替代,动词性替代和分句性替代。

(1)名词性替代常用one, it, that, those, the same和人称代词或物主代词。

Mr. Smith gave the text books to all the pupils except the ones who had already taken them.

史密斯老师把课本发给了所有学生,除了那些已经领到的。

I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have one.

我希望有足够多的玻璃杯,每个客人都能有一个。

I hate it when people talk with their mouth full.

我讨厌人们说话时嘴里含满食物。

—He was nearly drowned once. 他曾经险些淹死。

—When was that? 什么时候的事情?

—It was in 1998 when he was in the middle school. 1998年他上中学的时候。

The houses of the rich are larger than those of the poor.

富人的房子比穷人的大。

—Can I have a cup of black coffee with sugar, please? 请给我来一杯加糖黑咖啡。

—Give me the same, please. 我也来一杯一样的。

(2)动词性替代常用do, do so(it, that)等。

—I told him about it. 我告诉他(这个事情)了。

—Yes, I did, too. 是的,我也和他说了。

He had promised to pay, but failed to do so(it/that). 他曾答应要付钱,但是没有付。

(3)分句性替代常用so, not。

She hopes he’ll win and I hope so too. 她希望他能赢,我也希望如此。

—Will it rain today? 今天会下雨吗?

—I believe not.(=I don’t think so)我想不会。

(4)关于替代词so

so用于替代宾语从句的分句,表示说话者赞同上述情况。适用于这种情况的表示看法、意见等的动词有think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine, guess, say, hope, fear, be afraid等。

think so, believe so, except so等变为否定形式有两种途径:

1)用动词的否定形式。

2)用not代替so。

但be afraid so, fear so, hope so等变为否定形式只用第2种方法。

注意

与so有关的两个句型:

① 表示说话者赞同上述事实:So+主语+连系动词(助动词或情态动词)。

—It was cold yesterday. 昨天挺冷。

—So it was. 的确冷。

② 表示上述情况也适用于另一主语的句型

· 通用句型:so it is(was)with+另一主语。

He is a farmer. So it is with his brother.(= So is his brother)

他是个农民。他的弟弟也是。

· 只用于肯定情况的句型:So+连系动词(助动词或情态动词)+另一主语。

I enjoyed the book and so did my wife.(=So it was with my wife)

我喜欢这本书,我妻子也喜欢。

· 否定情况则使用:Neither(Nor)+连系动词(助动词或情态动词)+另一主语。

She didn’t come. Neither/Nor did her sister.(=So it was with her sister)

她没有来。她的妹妹也没来。


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