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2022年11月02日 VOA慢速英语:菊花:每年带来美丽的秋花

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2022年11月02日

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https://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8394/菊花:每年带来美丽的秋花.mp3
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Chrysanthemums: Fall Flowers That Bring Beauty Each Year
菊花:每年带来美丽的秋花
 

As the weather turns colder in some parts of the world, signs of autumn begin to appear. The leaves of some trees turn bright shades of red, yellow, and orange.
随着世界某些地区天气转冷,秋天的迹象开始出现。一些树的叶子变成明亮的红色、黄色和橙色。
 
At this time of the year depending on your location, you may also see a familiar flower: chrysanthemums. We often call them "mums," for short.
在一年中的这个时候,根据您所在的位置,您可能还会看到一种熟悉的花:菊花。我们经常简称他们为“妈妈”。
 
In parts of the United States, many people use chrysanthemums as decorations. The flowers sit next to pumpkins for Halloween, October's famous holiday. But then the mums are thrown away along with rotting jack o' lanterns.
在美国的部分地区,很多人用菊花作为装饰品。万圣节,十月的著名节日,鲜花坐在南瓜旁边。但随后妈妈们和腐烂的南瓜灯一起被扔掉了。
 
This yearly tradition bothered plant expert Jessica Damiano. In a recent article for the Associated Press, she wanted to know why people simply threw away their mums. So, she asked some of her neighbors in Long Island, New York.
这个每年一度的传统困扰着植物专家杰西卡·达米亚诺。在美联社最近的一篇文章中,她想知道为什么人们干脆扔掉他们的妈妈。因此,她询问了纽约长岛的一些邻居。
 
Everyone had the same answer: They thought the flowers were annuals -- flowers that only last for one season.
每个人都有相同的答案:他们认为这些花是一年生的——花只能持续一个季节。
 
Damiano explained that there are annual and perennial mums. Perennials come back for several growing seasons. Garden chrysanthemums, she adds, are actually perennials. Annual chrysanthemums are often sold in stores as potted gift plants. Special plant stores usually sell perennial mums.
Damiano 解释说,有一年生和多年生的妈妈。多年生植物会在几个生长季节回来。她补充说,花园菊花实际上是多年生植物。一年生菊花通常作为盆栽礼品植物在商店出售。特殊植物商店通常出售多年生植物。
 
If the plants are not labeled at a store, Damiano said to look at the leaves. The large, flat leaves of perennial mums have deep cuts around the edges. The narrow leaves of annuals do not.
如果植物没有在商店贴上标签,达米亚诺说要看叶子。多年生植物大而扁平的叶子边缘有很深的切口。一年生植物的狭窄叶子没有。
 
Perennial mums are hardy flowers. But they cannot survive freezing temperatures. They also cannot survive extreme summer heat. So, that means about half of the United States is good for growing mums.
多年生的妈妈是耐寒的花朵。但它们无法在冰冻的温度下生存。他们也无法在极端的夏季高温中生存。因此,这意味着大约一半的美国适合成长中的妈妈。
 
Perennial chrysanthemums, Damiano said, come from China. Kaifeng, a city in China's Henan province, is famous for its mums. Each year, the city holds a popular festival to celebrate the flowers. Chrysanthemum festivals are also held in other countries -- like Pakistan, Germany, South Korea, Japan, and the United States, to name a few.
达米亚诺说,多年生菊花来自中国。中国河南省开封市以妈妈闻名。每年,这座城市都会举办一个流行的节日来庆祝鲜花。菊花节也在其他国家举行——如巴基斯坦、德国、韩国、日本和美国,仅举几例。
 
Chrysanthemums come in shades of orange, red, rust, pink, purple, yellow, cream, and white. Some can grow to nearly one meter in height. They reach their mature size in about three years. In warmer climates, they bloom again in spring.
菊花有橙色、红色、铁锈色、粉红色、紫色、黄色、奶油色和白色。有些可以长到近一米高。它们在大约三年内达到成熟的大小。在温暖的气候中,它们在春天再次开花。
 
Planting tips
种植技巧
 
Here are some chrysanthemum planting tips.
这里有一些菊花种植技巧。
 
Plant mums in well-draining soil. And plant them as early in the season as possible. Spring is the best time -- if you can find them at plant stores. In the United States, that can be difficult.
在排水良好的土壤中种植妈妈。并尽可能早地种植它们。春天是最好的时间——如果你能在植物商店找到它们。在美国,这可能很困难。
 
Damiano said she has done well with fall plantings. But that might not work if temperatures drop below freezing within six to eight weeks of planting. So, she added, there is a risk.
达米亚诺说她在秋季种植方面做得很好。但如果温度在种植后的六到八周内降至冰点以下,这可能行不通。因此,她补充说,存在风险。
 
Adding compost to the soil improves drainage. It is also a good idea to set the plant into the ground at the same depth as it was growing in its container.
在土壤中添加堆肥可以改善排水。将植物放入与容器中生长相同的深度也是一个好主意。
 
Make sure there is enough space between plants to prevent crowding. Planting the mums too close together can lead to mold, mildew, and fungal diseases. If plants become overgrown, separate them in spring after new growth appears.
确保植物之间有足够的空间以防止拥挤。将妈妈种植得太近会导致霉菌、霉菌和真菌病害。如果植物长得太大,在春天出现新的生长后将它们分开。
 
Mums grow best in full sun with moist soil. So, do not let the soil dry out. It is also a good idea to fertilize them regularly. The flowers are heavy feeders.
妈妈们在充足的阳光和潮湿的土壤中生长最好。所以,不要让土壤变干。定期给它们施肥也是一个好主意。花是沉重的饲养者。
 
Put mulch around the plants to help keep up the soil moisture and keep out unwanted plants. Add more mulch after the ground has frozen. This protects roots from freezing then warming then freezing again.
在植物周围放置覆盖物,以帮助保持土壤水分并阻止不需要的植物。地面结冰后添加更多覆盖物。这可以防止根部冻结然后变暖然后再次冻结。
 
When plants stop growing, leave them in the garden over the winter. The above-ground plant matter, although dry, will help to further protect roots. Cut back the dry plant matter in spring after new growth emerges.
当植物停止生长时,把它们留在花园里过冬。地上植物物质虽然干燥,但有助于进一步保护根系。在新的生长出现后,在春季减少干燥的植物物质。
 
Starting in their third year, cut back one-third of the plants' growth three times per season: at the beginning and middle of June and again during the first week of July. Do not worry if you remove small flower buds. This will lead to more blooms and create fuller, bushier plants.
从第三年开始,每个季节三次减少三分之一的植物生长:6 月初和中旬,7 月的第一周再次减少。如果您去除小花蕾,请不要担心。这将导致更多的花朵,并创造出更饱满、更浓密的植物。
 
If chrysanthemums are not hardy in your zone, you can still enjoy them.
如果您所在地区的菊花不耐寒,您仍然可以享受它们。
 
Potted mums do not do well in the heat. So, do not buy them in late summer. They will survive better and longer if you wait until temperatures cool.
盆栽妈妈在高温下表现不佳。所以,不要在夏末买。如果你等到温度变凉,它们会活得更好、更久。
 
With potted mums, move them inside overnight if temperatures drop to freezing. Water thoroughly when the soil dries out. But again, do not let the plants stay dry for too long. The plants should remain alive until spring, when you can bring them back outdoors.
对于盆栽妈妈,如果温度降至冰点,请将它们移到室内过夜。当土壤变干时彻底浇水。但同样,不要让植物长时间保持干燥。植物应该一直存活到春天,那时你可以把它们带回户外。
 
Do the same in warmer climates. Damiano warns that when spring or summer temperatures get too hot – between 27 and 31 degrees Celsius -- bring the plants indoors. Do not bring them outdoors again until things cool down in autumn.
在温暖的气候中做同样的事情。达米亚诺警告说,当春季或夏季气温过热时——在 27 到 31 摄氏度之间——将植物带到室内。在秋天天气变凉之前,不要再把它们带到户外。
 
 
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