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科学家们找到了用微波炉制造纳米石墨的简单新方法

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2021年01月11日

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Scientists Find New And Simple Way To Make Nano-Graphite With A Microwave Oven

科学家们找到了用微波炉制造纳米石墨的简单新方法

Nano-graphite is an important material employed in lubricants, fire extinguishers, and lithium batteries as graphite is a good conductor of heat and electricity. However, graphite reserves are finite and extraction of this mineral comes with hefty environmental concerns. Now, researchers have found a cheap and easy way to produce it. You just need some copper foil, a glass container full of coal powder, and a conventional microwave oven.

纳米石墨是一种热和电的良好导体,是润滑剂、灭火器和锂电池的重要材料。然而,石墨储量是有限的,开采这种矿物会带来严重的环境问题。现在,研究人员发现了一种廉价而简单的生产方法。你只需要一些铜箔,一个装满煤粉的玻璃容器,和一个传统的微波炉。

Detailed in the journal Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, pulverized coal is sealed in a container with a mixture of hydrogen and argon and some aptly cut copper foil. This is then placed in a microwave. If you've ever made the mistake of putting something metallic in a microwave before, you know what happens next: sparks!

在《纳米结构与纳米物体》杂志上详细介绍,煤粉被密封在一个容器中,与氢气和氩气的混合物和一些适当切割的铜箔。然后将其放入微波炉。如果你曾经犯过把金属物品放进微波炉的错误,你知道接下来会发生什么:火花!

Dr Alfredo Carpineti

“By cutting the copper foil into a fork shape, the sparks were induced by the microwave radiation, generating an extremely high temperature of more than 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit within a few seconds,” lead author Christoffer Masi from the University of Wyoming said in a statement. “This is why you shouldn’t place a metal fork inside a microwave oven,” he added.

研究报告的第一作者、怀俄明大学的克里斯多夫·马西在一份声明中说:“将铜箔切成叉子状,微波辐射会产生火花,几秒钟内就会产生超过1800华氏度的高温。”他补充说:“这就是为什么你不应该把金属叉子放在微波炉里的原因。”

When the coal powder was exposed to those 980°C (1,800°F) sparks, the temperature was high enough to turn it into polycrystalline graphite. The hydrogen also helps in the process. The team tested this approach with times ranging between 3-45 minutes. The optimal duration for the process was found to be around 15 minutes.

当煤粉暴露在摄氏980度(1800华氏度)的火花下时,温度高到足以使其变成多晶石墨。氢在这个过程中也有帮助。该团队用3-45分钟的时间测试了这种方法。该过程的最佳持续时间约为15分钟。

Graphite is a good conductor of heat and elect

This may sound a bit like scientists playing around with equipment they have lying around at home but it could actually have some important real-world applications. “This method provides a new route to convert abundant carbon sources to high-value materials with ecological and economic benefits,” the team wrote in the study. “Finite graphite reserves and environmental concerns for the graphite extraction procedures make this method of converting coal to graphite a great alternative source of graphite production.”

这听起来可能有点像科学家们在家里摆弄他们的设备,但它实际上可能有一些重要的现实应用。该研究小组在研究报告中写道:“这种方法为将丰富的碳源转化为具有生态和经济效益的高价值材料提供了一条新途径。”出于对有限的石墨储量和对石墨开采过程的环境考虑,使这种将煤转化为石墨的方法成为石墨生产的一个很好的替代来源。

This is not the first time that coal has been refined using microwave technology. Previous approaches saw the reduction of moisture or the removal of certain minerals such as sulfur also achieved by employing microwave ovens. The drawback in those methods is the requirement that the coal undergoes particular chemical pre-treatment for the reactions to take place, which is not needed with this new technique.

这并不是第一次用微波技术精炼煤炭。以前的方法可以减少水分或去除某些矿物质,如硫,也可以通过使用微波炉来实现。这些方法的缺点是需要对煤进行特殊的化学预处理才能发生反应,而新技术不需要这种预处理。

The researchers believe that this technology can be scaled up and the material involved changed, with the goal of improving on the quality and yield of the nano-graphite produced.

研究人员认为,这项技术可以扩大规模,所涉及的材料也会发生变化,其目标是提高纳米石墨的质量和产量。

“The small thermal load makes this method cost-effective and has potential for higher temperature using metals with higher melting temperature,” the authors write. “Refinement of this technique is possible to yield a higher quality and quantity of nano-graphite materials for a wider range of applications.”

作者写道:“小的热负荷使得这种方法具有成本效益,并且有潜力使用具有更高熔化温度的金属达到更高的温度。”“对这项技术的改进有可能生产出质量和数量都更高的纳米石墨材料,用于更广泛的应用。”


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