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2020年04月08日

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"一随主。二随宾,第三人称不更新"。"一随主"是指在直接引语变间接引语时,从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称按照主句中主语的人称变化。

一、如何变人称;

下面有一句顺口溜"一随主。二随宾,第三人称不更新"。"一随主"是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如:

She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.

"二随宾"是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称,如:

He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。

"第三人称不更新"是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如:

Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。

二、如何变时态:

直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。

现在时它需改为过去时态;过去时态改为完成时;过去完成时则保留原来的时态。如:

1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen

2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.

3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。

①直接引语是客观真理。

"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。

②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:

Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。

③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:

Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。

④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:

He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。

⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:

Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。

实用高中英语语法(收藏)!

三、如何变状语:

直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规津,时间状语由"现在"改为"原来"(例:now变为then, yesterday。变为 the day before)地点状语,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由"此"改为"彼"(例:this 改为that),如:

He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.

四、如何变句型:

①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

②直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.

"You have finished the homework, haven't you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.

"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.

③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。

She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.

④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:

"Don't make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

⑤直接引语如果是以"Let's"开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用"suggest +动句词(或从句)。"如:

He said, "Let's go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.

引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出人家的原话,这叫做直接引语;一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来,这叫做间接引语。例如:

John said, "I'm going to London with my father."

约翰说:"我要和父亲到伦敦去。"(引号内是直接引语)

John said that he was going to London with his father.

约翰说,他要和他父亲去伦敦。(宾语从句是间接引语)

由直接引语变为间接引语,分以下情况:

1. 直接引语是陈述句时

间接引语为that引导的宾语从句(口语中that可以省略),主句的引述动词主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。

He said , "You are younger than I."-'He said (that ) I was younger than him.

2.直接引语是疑问句时

间接引语为陈述语序:主句的谓语动词say 改为ask,或改为wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。

(1) 一般疑问句或反意疑问句变为if (whether)引导的宾语从句。

She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?"

→She asked me if (或whether)I often went there to read newspapers.

She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven't you?"

→She asked me whether(或if )I had seen the film.

(2) 选择疑问句变为whether....or 宾语从句。

I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"

→I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.

(3)特殊疑问句变为由原来的疑问词引导的宾语从句。

He asked , "Where do you live?"

→He asked me where I lived.

3.直接引语是祈使句时

间接引语为不定式,作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等动词的宾语补足语(don't 变为not ).

The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window.

His father said to him , "Don't leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open.[注意](1) 有些表示建议、提议、劝告或要求的祈使句,可以用suggest ,insist等动词 加以转述。例如:

He said, "Let's go to the theatre."

→He suggested (our )going to the theatre.或He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre.

(2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked.

→He asked me to open the window.

"Why don't you take a walk after supper?" he asked .

→he advised me to take a walk after supper.

"Shall we listen to the music?" he asked.

→He suggested listening to the music.

4.直接引语是感叹句时

间接引语为what 或how 引导,也可以用that 引导。

She said, "What a lovely day it is !"

→She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day.

5.如果主句谓语动词为各种现在时或一般将来时,则间接引语中的动词仍保持直接引语原来时态。如果主句谓语动词为过去时,间接引语中的动词时态按下列变化:

(1) 一般现在时变为一般过去时

(2) 现在进行时变为过去进行时

(3) 一般将来时变为过去将来时

(4) 现在完成时变为过去完成时

(5) 一般过去时变为过去完成时

(6) 过去完成时不变,仍为过去完成时[注意](1) 如果直接引语是表示客观真理时,变为间接引语,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:

The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun."

→The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.

(2) 如果直接引语中有明确表示过时间的状语,变为间接引语时,一般过去时不改为过去完成时。如:

He said to me, "I was born in 1973."

→He told me that he was born in 1973.

(3)如果直接引语所述事实在当时和目前同样生效,变为间接宾语时,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:

He said, "I'm a boy, not a girl."

→He said that he is a boy ,not a girl.

(4)如果直接引语中的谓语动词表示一种反复出现或习惯动作,在变为间接引时,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:

The girl said, "I get up at six every morning."

→The girl said that she gets up at six every morning.

(5)如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句中的谓语动词,从句的一般过去时则不变。如:

He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."

→He told me that he had taught English since he came here.

(6)如果直接引语中含有情态动词 must, need, had better以及情态动词的过去式could, might, should, would,在变为间接引语时,这些情态动词没有时态的改变。例如:

The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."

→The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.

He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."

→He said that he could swim when he was only six.

6.代词等一般地应作用相应的变化。

指示代词 this ---that

these--- those

表示时间的词 now --- then

today--- that day

this week(month ,etc) ----that week (month ,etc)

yesterday ----the day before

last week(month) --- the week(month) before

three days(a year)ago---three days(a year)before

tomorrow ----the next (following ) day

next week(month)--the next(following)week(month)

表地点的词 here --there

动词 bring -- takecome -goUnit3。现在进行时表将来

当句子涉及确切的计划、明确的意图和为将来安排好的活动时, 现在进行时可用于表示将来。1) come, go, stay, arrive, leave 等词的现在进行时经常用于表示将来确切的计划。

2) 表示交通方式、行程安排的动词,例如 fly, walk, ride, drive, take (a bus, a taxi)等的现在进行时也经常用于表示将来(注意: 英语中一些表 "状态和感官"的动词通常不用于进行时【见下表】)

用法和单词例句表存在或位置: be, lie, stand

Japan lies to the east of China.

表所属: have, own, possess, belong to, fit, suit

Taiwan belongs to China.

Who owns this land?

表知觉: see, hear, smell, taste, sound, look, feel, seem, appear

I smell the dinner cooking.

He seems quite happy.

表认识、信仰、意见、怀疑、猜测、希望: know, think, understand, doubt, suppose, hope, wish

He doubts whether you will find your lost pen again.

表喜欢、反对、仇恨、厌恶: love, like, prefer, mind, hate, want, dislike, envy

We love our motherland deeply.

They envy her good fortune.注意:另外,表示将来的动作或状态,还可用以下几种形式:

① will / shall+动词原形 例: I shall be seventeen years old next month.

② be going to+动词原形:表示即将发生的或最近打算进行的事。例;We are going to have a meeting today.

③ be to+动词原形:表示按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见。例:Are we to go on with this work?

④ be about to+动词原形,表示即将发生的动作,不与表示将来的时间状语连用。

例;I was about to go swimming when my guide shouted at me and told me not to do so.

我正要去游泳, 这时向导大声叫我不要去。

⑤ be +动词的ing形式:表示按计划或安排要发生的事, 含义是 "预定要......" 这一结构常用趋向动词 go, arrive, come, leave, start, stay , return 和 play, do, have, work, wear, spend, see, meet等 。

例:--- When are you going off for your holiday? 你什么时候动身去度假?

--- My plane is taking off at 9:20, so I must be at the airport by 8:30. 我乘坐的飞机将于9:20分起飞, 所以我必须在8:30之前赶到机场。

⑥ 一般现在时表示将来时

(1) 按规定预计要发生的未来动作,仅限于动词come, go, leave, move, start, return, arrive, begin, stay等动词.

(2) 用在状语从句中用一般现在时代替将来时。 例:If you do that again, I'll hit you.

(3) 用在I bet 和I hope后面, 常用一般现在时表将来。 例 I bet you don't get up before ten tomorrow.

例: The plane takes off at 10:10. That is, it's leaving in ten minutes.

⑦ 单纯叙述未来的事实,可以用将来进行时,也可表示按计划安排将来要执行的动作。

Unit 4~5.定语从句

1. 定语从句的结构及理解2. 定语从句的关系词的使用3. 定语从句的简化表达

知识总结归纳

(一)定语从句的结构:在复合句中,修饰某个名词或代词的句子(做这个名词或代词的定语)叫定语从

句,定语从句一般放在被修饰的名词或代词后面,被修饰的名词或代词叫做定语从句的先行词,它与定语

从句之间要有一个词连接,这个词指代先行词的内容叫做关系词(关系代词或关系副词:that, which, who,

whose, when, where, why)。先行词在定语从句中充当主语,宾语,时间,地点,原因状语。

结构:先行词+关系词+定语从句。

1. Thereshesaw a wall of water that was quicklyadvancing towards her.

2. In Japan, someone who sees anotherperson making thegesture will thinkit means money.

3. A theme park is a collection of rides, exhibitions or other attractions that are based on a commontheme.4. The park has a conservation center that helps protect marine animals and their habitats in the

riversandcoastal waters ofAsia.

5. Visitors can go on exciting rides where they can feel what it is like to do thethings they have seen

theirheroes doin themovie.

6. OprahWinfrey is ablack woman whose rise tofame is an inspiring story.

(二)定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句:

限定性定语从句:从句对先行词进行必要的描述或说明,缺少它,则句义显得不完整,从句与先行词

紧密相连。

非限定性定语从句:对先行词进行补充说明,解释,它与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

1. Beforeshecould move, sheheard aloud noise,which grewtoa terrible roar.

2. Treeafter tree went down, cutdown bythe water, which must havebeen three meters deep.

3. Flora,whose beautifulhair anddress were all cold andwet, startedcrying.

4. Their talk includes rhythm and rhyming words as well as tongue twisters, which often make the

audience applaud.

(三)关系词前面可以根据定语从句的内容加上一些介词,这些关系词在介词后面常用 which 或 whom.

1. There was a man with whom I would have to work together and finally the manager of thecompany.2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes

in which people were eaten bythe shark.

知识重点与难点

(一)当先行词有最高级,序数词修饰,是不定代词,或是 all,no, only等形式时,关系代词一般用that,

而不能用 which。

1. The Titanic was the largest shipthat hadeverbeen built atthattime.

2. Thereis onething that keeps worrying me.

(二)当先行词是表示时间,地点,原因的词时,关系词用 when, where, why 还有which, that

1. I'mveryglad toreturn tomy hometown where I hadlived for10 years.

2. This is my hometown which Iused totalk about toyou.

3. Ithink Ican understand thereason why hedidn't tellthe truth tome.

4. No one believes thereason that he gaveus abouthis absence at themeeting.

(三)定语从句的简化表达:

1. The man who is sitting onthe platformis a professorfromWuhanUniversity.

2. The letter thatwas mailed lastnight will reach himtomorrow.

3. The questionthat is beingdiscussed is veryimportant.

4. Youarewelcome toa partytobe givenin ourclass at7:45.

说明:以上的定语从句部分可以用更加简单的非谓语形式表达出来:

1. The man sittingon theplatformis a professorfromWuhan University.

2. The letter mailed lastnight will reach himtomorrow.

3. The questionbeing discussedis veryimportant.

4. Youarewelcome toa partytobe givenin ourclass at7:45.

说明:修饰一个名词除了后面用定语从句以外,还可以用非谓语动词形式:doing短语,done短语,

beingdone短语,tobe done短语修饰。其结构和意思如下:

1. 被修饰名词+doing短语: 正在做....的人/正在发生的事。

2. 被修饰名词+ done短语: 被.....的人/事

3. 被修饰名词+beingdone短语:正在被.....的人/事

4. 被修饰名词+ tobe done短语:将要被.....的人/事

(1)Do youknow theman talkingto my sister?

(2)The "crazy"gesture, moving the indexfinger in acircle in front of the ear,means "youhave a

phone call"in Brazil.

(3)Did yousee that carbeingrepaired ?

(4)In a camera,the lensmust befocused onthe objectto bephotographed.

(5)The students toattend themeeting will arrive heretomorrow.

(6)Goods importedfromabroad arenotalways betterthan thosemade inChina.

(7)The Yellow River,said tobe "themotherriver"runs across China like a huge dragon.

总结:以上做定语的那些短语就是英语语法中所说的分词,不定式的各种形式作定语。

1. 这些短语作定语应放在被修饰名词的后面。如果单独一个V-ing或 V-ed形式作定语,则可以放在被

修饰名词前面。

2. 分词作定语时,其动作应与全句动作同时发生。V-ing表示主动意义和正在做,V-ed表示被动意义。

beingdone表示正在被做的

3. 不定式作定语表示将要发生的,tobe done表示将要被做的

【典型例题】

[例1] Friendshipis needed byall, _____plays animportantrole inpeople'slives.

A. which B. that C. who D. it

分析:_____plays animportant rolein people's lives为非限定性定语从句修饰先行词 Friendship用

which 连接定语从句。答案:A[例2] Uncle Li_____I worked three yearsagohas retirednow.

A. who B. whom C. with whom D. towhom

分析:_____I worked three years ago作为定语从句修饰先行词 Uncle Li,从句完整的表达是:I

worked with Uncle Lithree yearsago. 所以关系词前应加上介词 with。答案:C[例3] Is thisthe reason_____at themeeting forhis carelessnessin his work ?

A. he explained B. what he explained C. howhe explained D. why heexplained

分析:定语从句_____at themeeting forhis carelessnessin his work 修饰先行词 thereason指"他

在会上就他工作中的粗心解释的原因。先行词在从句中做宾语。答案:A[例4] Teachers, _____work is rather hard, arebeingbetter paidthan before.

A. who B. that C. which D. whose

分析:非限定性定语从句_____work is ratherhard修饰先行词teachers, 它与从句中的 work 是从属

关系,关系词用 whose答案:D[例5 ] The Olympic Games , _____in 776BC, didn't included women playersuntil1912.

A. first playing B. to befirstplayed

C. firstplayed D. tobe firstplaying

分析:公元前 776年被首次举行的奥运会,直到1912年才容纳女运动员。_____in776 BC 做定语修

饰 The Olympic Games,指过去的内容,表示被动。用 done做定语。答案:C[例6] The houses _____ fortheteachers andthe constructionwork will startsoon.

A. built B. to bebuilt C. tobuild D. beingbuilt

分析:根据句意房子即将开工。_____ forthe teachers andthe construction work 修饰 The houses

应为 The houses The houses将要为教师和施工修建的房子。答案:B[例7] How many of us_____,a meetingthat is notimportantto uswould beinterested in thediscussion?

A. attended B. attending C. toattend D. haveattended

分析:根据句意:比如说,我们当中参加一个对我们毫不重要的会议的人会有多少人对这个讨论感兴

趣呢?_____,say,a meeting that is notimportantto us修饰 How many ofus 做定语。与全句动作同步.答案:B[例8] She hasthree children, _____ is working in Australia.

A. who B. oneof whom C. oneof them D. none ofthem

分析:非限定性定语从句__is working inAustralia修饰先行词 three children,根据从句中的is 判断,

是说:三个孩子中的一个在澳大利亚工作。答案:B【模拟试题】

1. Susanis thevery girl_____the good deed.

A. whom I think did B. whom I think shedid

C. who I think did D. I thinkwho did

2. Luckily,thepoor boy hadenough money _____he couldbuy atrain ticket.

A. by which B. on which C. with which D. forwhich

3. The book _____ hedevoted much time is to come outnext month.

A. where B. which C. towhich D. onwhich

4. The daycame finally _____ Iwas given anopportunity to actin theplay.

A. when B. in that C. which D. in which

5. 1.Don't youthink thequestion _____ tomorrowis ofgreat importance.

A. beingdiscussed B. discussed

C. tobe discussed D. todiscuss

6. The food_____atthemoment is forthedinner party.

A. cooked B. to becooked C. is beingcooked D. beingcooked

7. Doyou knowthe teacher_____under thebig tree ?

A. read B. reads C. reading D. beingread

【试题答案】

1. C Susan 正是我认为作了好事的那位女孩。先行词 theverygirl 在从句中做think 的宾语,同时又

是后面宾语从句 didthegood deed.的主语,所以关系词不能用whom

2. C 定语从句_____hecould buya train ticket.修饰先行词 money:用这笔钱买火车票。关系词前面

需要加介词:with

3. C 定语从句 _____ he devoted much time 意思是:他把大量的时间都投入在这本书上了。

devote....tosth.关系词前加介词:to

4. A 定语从句_____ I was given an opportunity to act in the play修饰先行词 the day :先行词 the

day在从句中做时间状语:在这一天我得到了扮演一个角色的机会。

5. C 短语_____tomorrow做定语修饰the question,根据表达的内容:明天即将被讨论的问题。应当

用不定式的被动结构做定语。

6. D 短语_____at the moment 做 the food的定语,表示:正在做的食物。Being done 做定语表示:

正在被......的......。

7. C 现在分词短语 reading underthe bigtree做定语修饰 theteacher 表示:正在大树下看书的那位老师。


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