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大学英语六级考试(CET6)历年真题听力2017年12月英语六级听力真题(第2套) 录音(2)

所属教程:大学英语六级考试(CET6)历年真题听力

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luyuna

2018年12月20日

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https://online1.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0000/407/2017120206.mp3
https://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012

Recording Two

录音二

"Stereotype" may sound like a bad word, but there's nothing bad about it.

"刻板印象"听起来像个坏词,但这个词并没什么不好的。

For one thing, stereotypes are often accurate.

首先,刻板印象通常很准确。

When you ask people about their concept of stereotypes, they get it pretty much right.

你向人们询问对某些刻板印象的看法,他们会给出准确回答。

Also, stereotypes are often positive, particularly of groups that we ourselves belong to.

而且,刻板印象通常是正面的,尤其是描述我们所属的群体时。

Some of the statistical generalizations may be positive as some groups have reputations forbeing smart, for being loyal, for being brave, for all sorts of things that are not at all negative.

一些统计概括可能很正面,如某些团体以聪明闻名,或以勇敢闻名,或以其他各种积极的品质闻名。

And so there's nothing inherently wrong about stereotypes.

所以刻板印象本身没什么不对。

But there are problems with stereotypes.

但刻板印象还是存在一些问题。

For one thing, they're reliable insofar as they're based on unbiased samples.

首先,如若基于无偏样本,那么这些刻板印象就很可靠。

But a lot of the information we get about human groups is through biased sources like howthey're represented in the media.

但是,我们用以了解人群的很多信息来源都存在偏见,比如媒体呈现不同人群的方式存在偏差。

And if these sources don't give you an accurate depiction, your stereotype won't beaccurate.

并且,如果这些来源不给准确的描述,那么你形成的刻板印象也不会准确。

For example, many Jews have been troubled by Shakespeare's depiction of Shylock.

例如,莎士比亚对商人夏洛克的描写对很多犹太人造成了困扰。

If the only Jew you know is Shakespeare's Shylock, it's going to be a very bad impression.

如果你只认识莎翁笔下的夏洛克一个犹太人,那么犹太人给你留下的印象可真是糟透了。

So one problem with stereotypes is while we are good at drawing conclusions from them, oftenour information isn't reliable.

所以刻板印象的一个问题在于,我们很擅长基于刻板印象下结论,而我们的信息来源通常不太可靠。

A second problem is that stereotypes, regardless of whether or not they're accurate, can havea negative effect on the people that they apply to.

刻板印象的另一个问题是,无论是否准确,刻板印象都会对适用人群产生不好的影响。

And this is what psychologist, Claude Steele, described as stereotype threat.

这就是心理学家克劳德·斯蒂尔描述的刻板印象威胁。

He has a vivid example of this.

他对此举了个生动的例子。

Here's how to make African-Americans do worse on a math test.

要让美国黑人数学考得更差,这里有个办法。

You have the test and you put on the test that they have to identify their race.

你进行考试,并在试卷上迫使他们指出自己的种族。

The very act of acknowledging that they are African-American when given a test ignites in themthoughts of their own stereotype, which is negative regarding academics and that makesthem do worse.

他们考试时承认自己是美国黑人,恰是这一行为激发了内心关于黑人的刻板印象,认为黑人学术水平不行,从而导致他们考得差。

Want to know how to make a woman do worse on a math test?

想知道怎么让女性数学考得更差?

Same thing, get her to write down her sex.

一样的方法,让她写下自己的性别。

One recent study found a sort of clever twist on this.

最近一项研究让这一话题有了巧妙转折。

When Asian-American women are given a test and they're asked to mark down their race, theydo better than they would otherwise do.

美籍亚裔女性考试时按要求写下种族,会比不写考得更好。

They're reminded of a positive stereotype that boosts their morale.

他们想起了正面的刻板印象,得到了鼓舞。

You ask them, on the other hand, to mark down their sex, they do worse because they arereminded of a negative stereotype.

但是,若你要求他们写下性别,因为他们想起了负面的刻板印象,所以会考得差。

That's an example of how stereotypes have a potentially damaging effect on people.

这便是刻板印象对人们存在潜在伤害的例子。

Questions 19 to 22 are based on the recording you have just heard.

请根据你刚刚听到的对话回答问题19至问题22。

19. What does the speaker say about stereotypes?

问题19:关于刻板印象说话者谈了些什么?

20. What leads to the bias of stereotypes?

问题20:什么导致了刻板印象的偏见?

21. What does the speaker say is a problem with stereotypes?

问题21:说话者提到刻板印象存在什么问题?

22. What did one recent study find about stereotypes?

问题22:最近研究关于刻板印象有了什么发现?

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