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英语六级考试——写作真题选析之图画型

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2020年09月15日

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五、图画型

(一)题型描述

   顾名思义,即给出了图画(漫画或图片)要求考生写出文章。在2012年6月之前,图画作文可以说是考研英语的专利,因为从1998年开始,考研英语(尤其是2010年分出的考研英语一)几乎每次考的都是图画作文。但是近两年这种局面被打破。继2012年6月六级考查了图画作文之后,2013年6月四级作文也破天荒地考查了图画作文。作为四六级的新兴题型,这种写作自然会引起大家的重视,但完全没有必要惊慌,因为有大量的考研英语写作经验可以借鉴,而且相比此前讲过的作文类型而言,图画作文只不过多了一段看图说话的文字,另外两段的拓展方式甚至语言都与前述类型很像,的确没什么可怕的。在这里以2012年6月的真题为例进行讲解。

(二)真题示例

   2012年6月六级真题

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication.Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

(三)整体构思

   如前文所述,从2011年12月开始,六级写作不再给出具体提纲。在这道题中,只是要求考生在作文开始的部分简要描述图画(Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture)。但是,在此基础上很容易想到如下三个步骤:

   ·描述图画

   ·阐述寓意

   ·总结、建议或其他

(四)分段写作

   下面分别讲解每一段的写作。

   第一段

   本段不用太长,一般2~3句,按先主后次或时间、空间顺序写出与主题相关的细节。语言上常用现在进行时,可用复杂简单句(即用分词短语、介词短语等作定语或状语)、并列句(如用while连接两个句子)、复合句(如非限制性定语从句)和倒装句(如方位词+系动词+主语)。

   第二段

   按题目要求,本段应该写互联网对人际交流的影响(The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication)。当然,图中所体现的影响似乎是不好的:父亲想与女儿面对面交流,而女儿却拒绝了,让父亲去看她的博客。但如果在考场上只写网络对人际交流的负面影响,词数写不够,也可以稍微提及其正面影响:有些话确实不方便面对面说,即使是父母和子女之间也可以通过文字交流来更方便、更充分地表达思想。在实际写作时,可以采用让步的方式,先提及其积极作用,然后话锋一转,重点说其负面影响。这可以叫让步反驳法,也可以叫陈述利弊的写法。当然,后面我们在“模板变脸”的部分还会提及其他方法来阐述寓意,如举例论证法、分析原因法、分析结果法。

   第三段

   其实第三段在构思上并不难,可以对原文进行总结,即用不一样的词句再次表达图画的寓意,也可以就负面影响提出解决办法,或者展望一下未来互联网对人际交流的影响。

(五)高分模板

   其实,通过这篇文章的写作,可以总结出一批图画作文的模板,即下文中画线的部分:

   The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication

   This is a sarcastic but true?to?life picture.As we can see in it,a father asks his daughter about her day in school.The daughter,walking away from her father,answers carelessly,“You can read all about it on my blog,Dad.”

   Though the drawing is simple,the message it conveys is thought?provoking.Apparently,it is meant to reveal the fact that such online means of communication as blog,micro blog,QQ and MSN,are affecting interpersonal communication.While we should not turn a blind eye to the positive role of online means of communication,such as fuller and freer expression of one's thoughts,and accessibility of people far away,we should also pay due attention to its negative effect.Just as the cartoon reveals,many youngsters tend to spend more time online than chatting with others,their parents included,face to face.Evidently,this will exert a negative influence on their relationship with others.Due to the absence of facial expressions,eye contact,gestures,physical contact and timely feedback,misunderstanding may come as a result,leading to conflicts eventually.

   Bringing what has been discussed into a conclusion,we should strike a balance between the use of modern media and traditional ways of communication.While we are enjoying the benefits of virtual communication,we should not forsake face?to?face exchange with our family members or friends.

   译文

   网络对人际交流的影响

   这是一幅有讽刺意味却很反映现实的图画。如图所示,一位父亲问他的女儿一天的学校生活怎么样。女儿一边从父亲身边走开,一边漫不经心地回答:“你上我博客上看看就都知道了,爸。”

   尽管图画简单,但其寓意却发人深省。很明显,它的用意是揭示这一事实:诸如博客、微博、QQ、MSN这样的网络沟通方式正在影响人际交流。尽管我们不应无视网络交流方式的积极作用,如更充分、更自由的思想表达以及与远方的人交流的可行性等,我们也应该关注其负面影响。就像图片所揭示的那样,很多年轻人似乎要花更多的时间上网,而不是与其他人,包括父母,进行面对面的聊天。很明显,这将对他们的人际关系造成消极影响。因为缺乏面部表情、眼神接触、手势、肢体接触以及及时的反馈,可能就会产生误解,最终造成矛盾。

   综上所述,我们应该在使用现代媒体和传统交流方式之间达到一种平衡。在我们享受虚拟交流的益处时,也不应该放弃与家人和朋友的面对面交流。

(六)学以致用

   套用上面这一模板就可以轻松地写出更多同类作文,如2009年考研英语的大作文:

   Directions:Write an essay of 160~200 words based on the drawing given below.In your essay,you should

   1)describe the drawing briefly;

   2)explain its intended meaning,and then

   3)give your comment

   其实,这道题与六级上述真题如出一辙,或者说,2012年6月的六级真题就是仿照这一作文出的。从这层意义上说,我们关注一下考研写作的话题对四六级考试也是有好处的。

   范文

   This is a sarcastic but true?to?life picture.As we can see in it,there is a web with lots of people on it.But a careful examination reveals that those people are all sitting in front of computers in separate chambers.Though they are quite close to each other,they do not have much contact.On the other hand,they are most possibly communicating with people far away on the Internet.

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is thought?provoking.Apparently,it is meant to reveal the fact that such online means of communication as blog,micro blog,QQ and MSN,are affecting interpersonal communication.While we should not turn a blind eye to the positive role of online means of communication,such as fuller and freer expression of one's thoughts,and accessibility of people far away,we should also pay due attention to its negative effect.Just as the cartoon reveals,people tend to be too much addicted to Internet to maintain a regular and wholesome lifestyle.They tend to spend more time online than chatting face to face.Evidently,this will exert a negative influence on their relationship with others.

   Bringing what has been discussed into a conclusion,we should strike a balance between the use of modern media and traditional ways of communication.While we are enjoying the benefits of virtual communication,we should not forsake face?to?face exchange with our family members or friends.

(七)模板变脸

   其实,图画作文还可以细分。上述模板适用于写分析事物利弊的话题,可称为“陈述利弊型”,在第二段的扩展中可以说用的是“陈述利弊”的写法。而有些图画揭示的完全是坏事(可称为“解决问题型”),有些揭示的完全是好事(可称为“良性趋势型”),还有些揭示的是永恒的哲理(可称为“人生哲理型”),在写第二段时需要使用其他方法,具体而言就是“举例论证”、“分析原因”、“分析影响”。所用的模板句自然就有相应的变化。下面分别举例。

   1.解决问题型

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the following picture.Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

   该题明显反映的是有些子女拒绝赡养父母这一严重问题,因此属于“解决问题型”。第二段阐述寓意时可以举例论证,也可以分析原因或影响;第三段基本上就是提出解决问题的建议了。

   范文

   This is a simple but meaningful drawing.As we can see in it,a poor old man in shabby clothes curls into a ball.Around him are his three sons and a daughter,each of whom is keeping goal and ready to kick the old father away from himself or herself.

   第二段写法一:

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the fact that some people do not provide for their parents.Actually,almost no one could have failed to notice the phenomenon that nowadays many people ill?treat their aged parents or refuse to support them.(举例论证→)Taking a look around,we can find examples too numerous to list.Some just do as the sons and daughter in the picture.Others may support their parents financially,but turn a blind eye to their emotional needs.They either leave their parents in loneliness without paying visits to them frequently,or stop the widowed ones getting remarried.

   第二段写法二:

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the fact that some people do not provide for their parents.Actually,almost no one could have failed to notice the phenomenon that nowadays many people ill?treat their aged parents or refuse to support them.(分析原因→)A number of factors may account for such a phenomenon.One may attribute it to the fast pace of modern life and the increasing pressure on working young people,but they are surely not the major reasons.A fundamental cause,I believe,is a lack of education regarding respecting and loving the old.

   第二段写法三:

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the fact that some people do not provide for their parents.Actually,almost no one could have failed to notice the phenomenon that nowadays many people ill?treat their aged parents or refuse to support them.(分析影响→)This has resulted in the miserable life of a number of senior citizens.Should this trend continue,this society would be ruined morally.Besides,the wrong?doers will one day reap what they have sown and be maltreated by their off?spring.

   In view of the seriousness of the situation,effective measures must be taken before things get worse.In the first place,it is imperative that relevant laws should be worked out and rigidly enforced to protect the interest of senior citizens.In the second place,a deep?going,widespread and ever?lasting campaign should be launched to enhance people's awareness of loving and respecting their parents.Only with these measures taken can we expect a brighter future.

   译文

   这是一幅简单而有寓意的漫画。如图所示,一位可怜的老年人穿着破旧的衣服,蜷成一团。在他的周围是他的三个儿子和一个女儿,他们每个人都在守门,并且准备把老父亲从自己身边踢开。

   第二段写法一:

   尽管这幅画很简单,但它传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它的用意是揭示一些人不赡养父母这一事实。事实上,几乎人人都注意到这一现象:现在很多人虐待年迈的父母或者拒绝赡养他们。看看周围,我们会发现这样的例子不胜枚举。一些人就是像图画中的儿女那样做的。另外一些人可能会在经济方面接济父母,但对他们的情感需求却置之不理。他们要么任由父母孤独寂寞,不经常探望,要么阻止孤寡的老人再婚。

   第二段写法二:

   尽管这幅画很简单,但它传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它的用意是揭示一些人不赡养父母这一事实。事实上,几乎人人都注意到这一现象:现在很多人虐待年迈的父母或者拒绝赡养他们。很多因素可以解释这一现象。有人会将这种现象归因于现代生活的快节奏和上班的年轻人身上不断增加的压力,但这些绝对不是主要原因。我认为,根本原因是缺乏敬老和爱老的教育。

   第二段写法三:

   尽管这幅画很简单,但它传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它的用意是揭示一些人不赡养父母这一事实。事实上,几乎人人都注意到这一现象:现在很多人虐待年迈的父母或者拒绝赡养他们。这造成了很多老年人的凄惨生活。如果这种趋势继续下去,这个社会就会道德沦丧。另外,这些作恶者早晚有一天会自食其果,遭到他们子女的虐待。

   鉴于形势的严重性,必须采取有效措施,防止情况恶化。首先,必须制定并严格执行相关的法律来保护老年人的利益。其次,应该开展一场深入、广泛而持久的宣传来提高人们爱戴和尊敬父母的意识。只有随着这些措施的贯彻实施,我们才能期待一个更光明的未来。

   2.良性趋势型

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the following picture.Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

   该题明显反映的是文化多元化或文化融合这一趋势,这应该是好事,而且图画标题“文化‘火锅’,既美味又营养”更明确了这一点,因此属于“良性趋势型”作文。第二段阐述寓意时仍然可以举例论证、分析原因或分析影响;而且也可以把其中两种方法结合使用;第三段可以提出建议,指出要使图画中的趋势得以继续。其实很多语言可以与“解决问题型”模板一样,如范文所示:

   范文

   This is a simple but meaningful picture.As we can see in it,there is a hot pot with a rich variety of food materials in it:Buddhism,Confucianism,Taoism,Kungfu,Lao She,Shakespeare,Einstein,postmodernism,deconstruction,the Swan Lake,Beijing Opera and so on.The caption reads that “the culture hot pot is both delicious and nutritious.”

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the fact that Chinese culture has become diversified.Actually,almost no one could have failed to notice the phenomenon that nowadays an increasing number of cultures have been introduced into our society.(分析原因→)A number of factors may account for such a phenomenon,but the fundamental ones are China's opening?up policy and the trend of globalization.(分析影响→)If this situation goes as it is,the consequence will be encouraging.

   In view of the benefits of the trend,effective measures must be taken to maintain it.In the first place,it is imperative that pertinent policies should be worked out and enforced to encourage the existence of various cultures.In the second place,people should be educated to enhance the awareness of tolerance and compromise.Only with these measures taken can we expect a harmonious and prosperous society.

   译文

   这是一幅简单而有寓意的漫画。如图所示,有一个火锅,里面有各种各样的食材:佛、儒、道、功夫、老舍、莎士比亚、爱因斯坦、后现代、解构、天鹅湖、京剧,等等。标题写的是:“文化‘火锅’,既美味又营养”。

   尽管这幅画很简单,但它传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它的用意是揭示中国文化变得多元这一事实。事实上,几乎人人都注意到这一现象:现在越来越多的文化被引入我们的社会当中。很多因素可以解释这一现象,但根本因素是中国的开放政策和全球化的潮流。如果这种趋势继续下去,结果将是鼓舞人心的。

   鉴于这一趋势的好处,必须采取有效措施将其保持下去。首先,必须制定并执行相关的政策来鼓励多种文化的存在。其次,应该教育人们提高容忍和妥协的意识。只有采取这些措施,我们才能期待一个和谐而繁荣的社会。

   3.人生哲理型

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the following picture.Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

   该题明显反映的是“人不应该夸大困难,而应该有自信”这一寓意,因此属于“人生哲理型”。只有哲理阐述较为抽象,我们可以引用具体的事例进行论证。本文可以写为三段:第一段描述图画,第二段开头点明寓意,第二段后半部分举例论证,第三段进行总结或给出建议。如果觉得举例部分写不了太多,显得文章单薄,仍然可以加上分析原因或分析影响的语句,很多语句可以与“解决问题型”或“良性趋势型”模板一样,如范文所示:

   范文

   This is a simple but meaningful picture.As we can see in it,one person in it is going to shoot and the other is keeping goal.While the former is imagining the latter to be much stronger than he looks,the latter is picturing himself as being a lot weaker than he actually is.

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the importance of confidence on our way to success.Confident in ourselves,we shall overcome almost all hardships;otherwise,we shall be defeated by unworthy enemies.Actually,history abounds with examples for this theory.The victory of the People's Liberation Army over the Kuomintang troops is a case in point.Though the latter were armed to teeth,they were far from formidable.With confidence in themselves,the PLA finally won the war.

   Bringing what has been discussed into a conclusion,we may say that the lack of confidence is a major barrier on our way to success.In a word,we should truly understand the profound meaning of the picture and try various means to cultivate our confidence.

   译文

   这是一幅简单而有寓意的漫画。如图所示,一个人正在准备射门,另一个人在守门。前者把后者想象得比看上去要强大得多,而后者则把自己想象得比实际上要弱小得多。

   尽管这幅画很简单,但它传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它的用意是揭示自信在我们成功道路上的重要性。如果对自己有信心,我们就会克服几乎所有的困难;否则,我们就会被一些看似渺小的敌人所打败。事实上,历史上关于这一道理的例子层出不穷。人民解放军战胜国民党部队就是一个典型的例证。尽管后者武装到了牙齿,但他们远非不可战胜。怀着对自己的信心,人民解放军最终赢得了战争的胜利。

   综上所述,我们可以说,缺乏自信是我们成功道路上的一个主要障碍。简而言之,我们应该真正理解这幅图画的深刻含义,想方设法培养我们的自信。

(八)变脸应用

   1.解决问题型

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the following picture.Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture.

   You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

   范文

   This is a simple but meaningful drawing.As we can see in it,a man living on the upper floor of a building is watering a plant,whose roots have grown downward so far that they have barred the window of an old man living downstairs,making his apartment a prison.

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the fact that some people tend to base their own happiness on other's bitterness.Actually,almost no one could have failed to notice the phenomenon that nowadays many people only care about themselves while ignoring others'interests.Taking a look around,we can find examples too numerous to list.It is never too rare to see some people walking their dogs outdoors and let them shit everywhere.Nor is it to find some honking the horn of their cars willfully while driving in the street,disturbing people living around.

   In view of the seriousness of the situation,effective measures must be taken before things get worse.In the first place,it is imperative that relevant laws should be worked out and rigidly enforced to punish those who infringe upon others'rights.In the second place,a deep?going,widespread and ever?lasting campaign should be launched to enhance people's awareness of loving and caring about one another.Only with these measures taken can we expect a brighter future.

   译文

   这是一幅简单而有寓意的漫画。如图所示,一位住在楼上的人正在浇花,花根向下长得很长,挡住了楼下老人的窗户,让老人的家变得像监狱一样。

   尽管这幅画很简单,但它传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它的用意是揭示一些人把自己的幸福建立在别人的痛苦之上这一事实。事实上,几乎人人都注意到这一现象:现在很多人只关心自己,而忽视别人的利益。看看周围,我们会发现这样的例子不胜枚举。我们经常看到一些人在户外遛狗,让狗随处大小便。也不难发现一些人在大街上开车时乱按喇叭,打扰了周围的居民。

   鉴于形势的严重性,必须采取有效措施,防止情况恶化。首先,必须制定并严格执行相关的法律来惩罚那些侵犯他人权利的人。其次,应该开展一场深入、广泛而持久的宣传来提高人们相互关爱的意识。只有采取这些措施,我们才能期待一个更光明的未来。

   2.良性趋势型

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the following pictures.Your essay should start with a brief description of the pictures.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

   范文

   These are two simple but meaningful pictures.As we can see in the first one,some young men and women are getting ready to work as volunteers,most possibly to attend some rescuing activities.In the second,some volunteers for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games are showing the way for some foreign visitors.

   Simple as the pictures are,the message they convey is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the fact that more Chinese are willing to work as volunteers.Actually,almost no one could have failed to notice the phenomenon that nowadays an increasing number of volunteers have appeared in China.Taking a look around,we can find examples too numerous to list.These volunteers have undoubtedly contributed considerably to this society.If this situation goes as it is,the consequence will be encouraging.

   In view of the benefits of the trend,effective measures must be taken to maintain it.In the first place,it is imperative that pertinent policies should be worked out and enforced to encourage more people to participate in volunteering activities.In the second place,people should be educated to enhance the awareness of loving and caring for one another.Only with these measures taken can we expect a harmonious and prosperous society.

   译文

   这是两张简单而有寓意的照片。如第一张所示,一些年轻人正在准备去做志愿者,很可能是去参加某些救援行动。在第二张照片中,一些2008年北京奥运会的志愿者正在为一些外国游客指路。

   尽管这两张照片很简单,但它们传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它们旨在揭示更多的中国人愿意做志愿者这一事实。事实上,几乎人人都注意到这一现象:现在中国出现了越来越多的志愿者。看看周围,我们会发现例子不胜枚举。这些志愿者无疑为我们社会做出了巨大贡献。如果这种趋势继续下去,结果将是鼓舞人心的。

   鉴于这一趋势的好处,必须采取有效措施将其保持下去。首先,必须制定并执行相关的政策来鼓励更多的人参与到志愿者活动当中来。其次,应该教育人们提高相互关爱的意识。只有采取这些措施,我们才能期待一个和谐而繁荣的社会。

   3.人生哲理型

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the following picture.Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

   范文

   This is a simple but meaningful picture.As we can see in it,a man is searching for the source of water.He has already dug many wells but none of them has reached water.In fact,water is just a few inches below the bottom of one of the wells.With a cigarette between his lips and a spade in his hands,he walks away leisurely,saying to himself in mind that there is no water here and he will try another place.

   Simple as the drawing is,the message it conveys is profound and far?reaching.Obviously,it is meant to reveal the importance of perseverance on our way to success.With perseverance,we shall overcome almost all hardships;otherwise,we shall be defeated by unworthy enemies.Actually,history abounds with examples for this theory.The discovery of the chemical element radium by Madam Curie is a case in point.It was after hundreds of days and nights and countless times of failure that the great scientist achieved her goal.

   Bringing what has been discussed into a conclusion,we may say that the lack of perseverance is a major barrier on our way to success.In a word,we should truly understand the profound meaning of the picture and try various means to cultivate our perseverance.

   译文

   这是一幅简单而有寓意的漫画。如图所示,一个人正在寻找水源。他已经挖了很多口井,但没有一口挖到水的。事实上有一口差一点就够到水了。他叼着烟,拿着锹,悠然地走开了,一边走,一边自言自语道:“这里没有水,换个地方挖!”

   尽管这幅画很简单,但它传达的寓意却很深刻。很明显,它旨在揭示毅力在我们成功道路上的重要性。如果有毅力,我们就会克服几乎所有的困难;否则,我们就会被一些看似渺小的敌人所打败。事实上,历史上关于这一道理的例子层出不穷。居里夫人发现镭元素就是一个典型例证。这位伟大的科学家是在几百个日日夜夜和数不清的失败之后才达到目的的。

   综上所述,我们可以说,缺乏毅力是我们成功道路上的一个主要障碍。简而言之,我们应该真正理解这幅图画的深刻含义,想方设法培养我们的毅力。


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