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英语六级考试——写作强化训练之写作纠错练习答案解析

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2020年09月20日

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(四)写作纠错练习答案解析

   I.语法错误

   (I)句子结构错误

   1.一主两谓

   1)改法一:There are more and more people liking to shop online.

   改法二:More and more people like to shop online.

   改法三:There are more and more people who like to shop online.

   2)改法一:Many problems still should be noted and resolved.

   改法二:There are still many problems that should be noted and resolved.

   解析:一个简单句只能有一个主谓结构。其中可以有两个或以上的并列谓语,但不可以在主语前后各有一个谓语。

   2.句子成分缺失

   1)改法一:If we work hard,we will surely be successful.

   改法二:Working hard,we will surely be successful.

   解析:英语句子必须有主语和谓语

   2)改法一:What generated so great a change?

   改法二:Why did there so great a change occur?

   解析:英语的generate是及物动词,表示“使产生”、“造成”等意,原句中的so great a change 是作generated 的宾语,Why是疑问副词作状语,这样就造成了句子没有主语的情况,严重违反英语的语法规则。

   3.语序错误

   1)Why do college students spend more and more time on the computer?

   解析:特殊疑问句通常用倒装语序:“特殊疑问词 + 助动词+主语和其他部分”,除非特殊疑问词在句中作主语或修饰主语。

   2)I often wonder where they have got their money.

   解析:间接引语或从句用陈述语序。

   4.简单句叠置

   改法一:I like swimming very much,so/and I go to swim almost every week.

   改法二:Because I like swimming very much,I go to swim almost every week.

   改法三:I like swimming very much.I go to swim almost every week.

   解析:两个简单句不可以仅仅用逗号连接;如为并列关系,须用并列连词,如and,or,but,so,for,while等;如为主从关系,须在从句之前加从属连词,如since,because,if等;否则,两句要用句号、分号、问号或感叹号隔开。

   5.从句叠置

   改法一:As is known to all,computers play an important role in many fields of our life.

   改法二:It is known to all that computers play an important role in many fields of our life.

   解析:一个大句子里面的两个小句只可能是并列的分句,或主句和从句,不可能都是从句,因此不得同时使用两个连词。

   6.主从句分离

   Some people support euthanasia,because it helps the terminally ill die with dignity.

   解析:Because一词只有在引导由Why引起的疑问句时才能单独引导一个简单句,否则就只能做从属连词连接主句和从句,而英语从句与主句不可分离。

   (II)名词单复数错误

   改法一:A wise man seeks opportunities rather than wait for them.

   改法二:Wise men seek opportunities rather than wait for them.

   解析:单数可数名词通常不单独使用,要加上限定词,如冠词、代词,或用复数形式。在某些固定词组中例外,如go to church,go to college,put sb.into prison。

   (III)动词错误

   1.谓语动词时态错误

   1)Many people think that the Internet will be more useful in the future.

   解析:写作中多用一般现在时,尤其在发表观点时。用一般过去时通常明确指过去发生的事情,一般有过去的时间词,如描述图表中具体年份的数据。

   2)Other people disagree with this view.

   解析:一般现在时的谓语形式为动词原形或第三人称单数形式。

   2.谓语动词单复数错误

   改法一:A wise man seeks opportunities rather than wait for them.

   改法二:Wise men seek opportunities rather than wait for them.

   解析:在一般现在时、现在完成时、现在进行时、过去进行时中,如果主语是第三人称单数,谓语要用单数形式。

   3.谓语动词连用错误

   改法一:They throw their rubbish away carelessly,seriously polluting the environment.

   改法二:They throw their rubbish away carelessly and seriously pollute the environment.

   改法三:They throw their rubbish away carelessly,which seriously pollutes the environment.

   解析:两个及以上谓语动词不可简单并列或仅用逗号连接,应该加上连接词,或者将其中一部分变为非谓语形式或另一个句子。

   4.谓语动词语态错误

   1)I have been excited for several days at the news that you will come here.

   2)Most of the students are satisfied with the service in the dining hall.

   解析:英语中很多词表示“使某人……”,在应用中往往用被动形式,表示“(人)感到……”,尤其是表示心理状态的词,如excite,satisfy,annoy,surprise,frighten,worry,concern等,还有addict,accustom,confront等。

   5.非谓语动词错误

   1)Let me take my own experience as an example.

   解析:使役动词make,let,have后接宾语再加不定式作补语时,不定式不带to。

   2)Doing exercise in the morning is good for one's health.

   解析:动词原形不可以作主语,须改为非谓语形式,即动名词或不定式。不定式往往表示特定的或尚未发生的动作,而动名词表示一般的、经常存在的动作或状态。

   3)改法一:Having studied in this college for 3 years,I find the campus has changed a lot.

   改法二:I have studied in this college for 3 years,during which the campus has changed a lot.

   解析:分词作状语,其逻辑主语要与句子主语一致。

   (IV)代词错误

   1)We can do everything we like on computer.

   2)A college student should be able to do his washing on his own.

   解析:同一句中,代词与所替代的名词以及代词与代词之间在人称和单复数两方面都要一致。

   3)Some people are afraid that computers may control men in the future.

   解析:someone表示“某个人”,而不是“某些人”。

   4)Other people think differently.

   解析:another表示“另一个”,而不是“另一些”。

   (V)冠词错误

   1)First of all,setting off firecrackers leads to severe pollution.

   解析:通常来说,对于不可数名词和复数可数名词而言,只有在特指某个范围的人或事物时才加the,否则就不用。

   2)The horse is a useful animal.

   解析:单词开头的字母u发【ju?】音时,前面的冠词不用an,发【?】音时才用,如an umbrella。

   II.表达习惯错误

   1)改法一:Now 2,000 Yuan is enough to buy a nice computer.

   改法二:Now you can buy a nice computer with 2,000 Yuan.

   解析:原句意为“现在两千块钱就可以买一台很好的电脑”,其实是汉语的无主句,“买”的真正主语是“人们”或“你”,在汉语中被省略了;而“两千块钱”其实是指“(用)两千块钱”,是作方式状语的。英语句子比较讲究逻辑和语法,不能用“(用)两千块钱”作主语,又不能没有主语,所以改动如上。

   2)改法一:A room usually accommodates 6~8 students.

   改法二:Usually 6~8 students live in one room.

   解析:原句意为“一个房间通常住六到八个学生”,是一种有汉语特色的省略或倒装说法,其真正含义是“一个房间通常能容纳六到八个学生”,或“通常六到八个学生住一个房间”。“容纳(accommodate)”的主语可以是a room;但“住(live)”这一行为的发出者是“students”,所以要按英语习惯改动如上。

   3)I think there are three reasons for this great change.

   解析:have表示“有”,是体现“所有关系”的,如 I have a car;the car has four wheels.“车”是属于“我”的,“轮子”是属于“车”的。 但reasons并不属于change,因为change既不是reasons的所有者,也不是作为一个整体包含reasons。所以改为表示“存现关系”的there be结构。

   4)改法一:The prices of the food are too high.

   改法二:The food is too expensive.

   解析:汉语经常说“某物价格太贵/便宜”,是因为汉语是意合语言,经常用重复的手段来确保表意清楚,其实价格不过是个数字,只有高低,没有贵贱。同样的道理,不能说Shanghai has many population.而应说Shanghai has a large population.因为population(人口)只是个数字,不能再用“多”、“少”来修饰,应用“大”或“小”。

   5)改法一:The reason for this phenomenon is that some people want to earn plenty of money without working hard.

   改法二:This phenomenon exists because some people want to earn plenty of money without working hard.

   解析:汉语是意合语言,经常用重复的手段来确保表意清楚,尤其是现代汉语,经常说“虽然……但是……”、“因为……所以……”,但是在英语里面用这些结构当中的一个词就够了。如果上述说法在汉语里还是可以接受的,那么该题原句对应的中文“这件事情的原因是因为……”在汉语里都是不通或者冗赘的。

   III.标点符号以及大小写错误

   1)My favorite sports are swimming,jogging,mountaineering and playing table tennis.

   解析:原句属于“标点符号错误”。英语中没有顿号,表示三者或三者以上的并列关系时前几者之间用逗号。

   2)The best English film in my eyes is Forrest Gump.

   解析:原句属于“标点符号错误”。英语中没有书名号。要表示作品名称通常用大写实词首字母并加斜体的方式表示。

   3)Nowadays,there are many parents who send their children to art classes.

   解析:英文中字母大写的情况主要有以下两种。

   1.题目中第一个字母和实词(名词、动词、形容词、副词、代词、数词)首字母大写。例:A Day in 2009,Keeping Pets,Should Students Be Allowed to Live Off Campus?

   2.文章中句首字母(即每个句号、问号和感叹号之后第一个字母)和专有名词(人名、地名、时间名、报刊杂志名、组织机构名等)的实词首字母大写。例:

   1)人名:Li Ming,Li Xiaoming,Zhuge Liang(与人名连用的表示称呼、称号或职务的名词首字母也要大写,如Mr.Smith,Dr.Brown)

   2)地名:Asia,China,Beijing,Shandong(由国家名演变来表示“某国的”,“某国人”或“某国语”的词首字母也要大写,如Chinese,Japanese;构成地名或与地名连用的普通词首字母也要大写,如the Great Wall,Tian'anmen Square)

   3)时间名:May,Sunday,Christmas,New Year's Eve,the Mid?autumn Festival

   4)报刊杂志名:Time,the Economist,the Washington Post,China Daily

   5)组织机构名:the United Nations,the People's Republic of China,the Communist Party


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