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托福写作高分:掌握好文章结构

所属教程:托福写作

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zhaocongcong

2018年09月01日

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  托福写作中,文章的结构是最关键的。大部分的同学在写作的时候,采用的是五段三点式的写作结构,那么对于具体的每个段落,大家如何更好地阐述自己的观点呢?

  开头段主要用以下几种方法来组织,即背景法 (Background),争议法(Controversy),提问法(Question),故事法(Story)和引言法(Quotation)。

  以背景法为例。背景法一般会提出一种普遍的或值得关注的现象作为背景或者是由远到近,由大到小地谈论紧扣论题的社会观点作为背景。

  背景法开头段的结构通常如下:背景(1-3句)+论题+反方观点+(反方理由)+过度+(正方观点)+作者的观点+作者的理由。例:Technology makes people's lives more complicated. 题目涉及到了现今社会比较热门的话题---科技。

  这样,我们就可以以这种社会比较关注的现象作为我们作文的开头背景。因此这个题目的首段就可以这样开始:Technology has had tremendous impacts on every aspect of modern life. However, people are having conflicting opinions about whether it has made people's lives more complicated or not. I believe technology has by and large made our lives more convenient。第一句话就是一句紧贴社会的背景,这样写不但很容易打开考生自己的思路,抓住作文的焦点,还能引起考官的共鸣。中间段落中间段落的文章结构通常如下:Transitional words + topic sentence + development。如果考生在平时能熟练运用这样的一个结构来展开作文,那么考场上就会凭借这份思维定势来帮助自己抓住每一分。

  中间三个段落都可以套用这种模式。Transitional words主要有以下三种,即表顺序:firstly, secondly, finally (last but not least);表并列:besides, in addition;表对比:in contrast, in comparison。这些衔接词会让文章看起来脉络清晰,组织严密,也就做到了评分标准中的"well-organized"一条。主题句,顾名思义,向考官展示的是考生作文的主要意旨所以它在中间段落中的作用是至关重要的。通常主题句应该注意一下几点:

  1.主题句必须是陈述句。有的考生想在写作中创新,于是采用反问句或者其他看似多样化的题目,然而这种多样性带来的后果是给考官观点不明确的印象,很自然地会影响到分数。

  2.必须表明观点。如果考生把一句无关痛痒的话放在主题句的位置上,很显然无法表明自身观点。比如像"今天是晴天"这样的话没有表明观点;然而"今天是个好天气"就包含一种感情色彩在里面,给人一种立场明确的感觉。考生应该切记:没有反驳余地的就不可以作为主题句。

  3.态度必须坚决,但是不能极端。

  4.每段必须有主题句,没有主题就会浪费考官的时间去帮你总结主题,然而繁忙的考官是不会那么善良地去分析你的题目来抓取你的观点的。

  当然,如果考生能把以上几点托福写作技巧全部掌握,那么我们的托福写作构思就是比较成功了。

  接下来我们以一道托福真题给大家详细分析一下:

  托福写作真题:Agree or disagree: spending too much time on watching sports on TV and following your favorite team would have a bad effect on your life.

  题型分类:现象证明

  论证角度:拆分(家庭、健康)

  观点选择:让步

  开头:同意过多时间看体育节目和关注体育队会影响生活(话题引入+他人观点+明确立场+过渡)

  As always, sport is one of the few things that is extremely popular among people of all ages and all walks of life. A great many people spend a large amount of time watching sports on TV and collecting information about their favorite sports teams. This phenomenon gives rise to a grave concern about whether excessive focus on sports would bring a bad effect on life. As far as I am concerned, the answer to the question above is affirmative. My viewpoint can be supported by the following cases. (89字)

  中间段1:影响家庭生活。(主题句+说理论证+细节例子)

  Firstly, too much time on sports is detrimental to family harmony. It is because family should be a place where members need to care about each other by listening, talking and offering helps, but the obsession with sports would definitely deprive people of the “quality time” that belongs to family members. Imagine such a scene: a wife wants to ask advice about changing jobs from her husband, but the husband seems like indifferent and aloof. Later, the wife finds out that her husband has his mind so stuffed with football matches that there is no room left for listening to his wife’s inner voice. (104字)

  中间段2:影响身体。(主题句+说理论证+细节例子)

  Secondly, physical health would be negatively affected by excessive attention to sports on TV as well as sports teams. Fascination with something often comes at a cost. People go after sports stars and critical sporting events at the sacrifice of losing opportunities to rest or exercise. For example, I have a neighbor who is a maniac football fan. During the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, he stayed up every night watching the games because of the time difference. Inadequate sleep and great pressure of work caused his health to suffer and he developed serious problems with his heart.(99字)

  让步段:诚然,看体育比赛和关注球队也有好的一方面,比如增加社交技能,丰富业余时间等等。但是,我们一定要把时间控制好,安排好,切不可过度沉迷,否则会出现上述的情况。(承认漏洞+堵漏)

  But on the other hand, there are indeed some benefits that watching sports and following favorite teams bring to people. For instance, in social occasions, people do need a couple of common topics to start up conversation or strengthen mutual understandings. Besides, sports can be a nice choice to enrich our spare time. However, if we fail to manage our time and let our interests uncontrollably occupy the time to work, exercise and communicate with family, undesirable consequences would occur. (79字)

  结尾:重申观点,归纳理由/升华主题。

  From what has been discussed above, we can safely draw a conclusion that too much time on sports on TV and following sports teams do have bad influence on our lives. There is an ancient Chinese wisdom that reads: “Things would turn for the worse if they go extreme.” Having a hobby is a good thing, but if we do not strike a balance between it and our lives, it would become an obstacle. (74字)


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