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托福写作语法:如何深入表达

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zhaocongcong

2019年03月07日

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  1.一个句子的主语和谓语动词应该能够反映句子中的最重要的意思。例如:

  The situation that resulted in my grandfather’s not being able to study engineering was that his father needed help on the farm.

  从意思上来分析,上面这句话需要表达的重要的概念是“grandfather’s not being able to study”,而在表达这个概念时,原句用的主语是situation,谓语动词是was,不能强调需要表达的重点概念,可以改为下面这句话:

  My grandfather couldn’t study engineering because his father needed help on the farm.

  2.避免频繁使用“there be”结构,例如下面的句子:

  There were 25 cows on the farm that my grandfather had to milk every day.It was hard work for my grandfather.

  可以改为:My grandfather worked hard. He had to milk 25 cows on the farm every day.

  更简洁的句式为:

  My grandfather worked hard milking 25 cows daily.

  3.把从句改为短语或单词。例如:

  Dairy cows were raised on the farm, which was located 100 kilometers from the nearest university and was in an area that was remote.

  简介的表达方式为:

  The dairy farm was located in a remote area, 100 kilometers to the nearest university.

  4.仅在需要强调宾语而不是主语的时候,才使用被动语态。例如:

  In the fall, not only did the cows have to be milked, but also the hay was mowed and stacked by my grandfather’s family.

  本句不够简洁的原因是本句的重心应该是“忙碌的家庭-my grandfather’s

  family”,而使用了被动语态后,仿佛重心变成了cows和hay。下面的表达方式是主动语态,相对来说更简洁一些:

  In the fall, my grandfather’s family not only milked the cow but also mowed and stacked the hay.

  5.用更为精确的一个动词来代替动词短语,例如下面这句话:

  My grandfather didn’t have time to stand around doing nothing with his school friends.

  Stand around doing nothing其实可以用一个动词来表达,即loiter:My grandfather didn’t have time to loiter with his school friends.

  6.有时两句话的信息经过组合完全可以用一句话来简练地表达,例如:

  Profits from the farm were not large. Sometimes they were too small to meet the expenses of running a farm. They were not sufficient to pay for a university degree.

  两句话的信息可以合并为下面这句更为简洁的句子:

  Profits from the farm were sometimes too small to meet operational expenses,let alone pay for a university degree.


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