英语四级 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 英语四级 > 英语四级阅读 >  内容

2020年7月大学英语四级阅读真题以及答案

所属教程:英语四级阅读

浏览:

tingliketang

2024年06月11日

手机版
扫描二维码方便学习和分享

英语四级阅读,作为大学英语能力的重要评估指标,不仅检验了学生对词汇、语法的掌握,更考察了其阅读理解和信息筛选的能力。在全球化背景下,提升这一能力对于拓宽视野、增进跨文化交流至关重要。今天,小编将分享2020年7月大学英语四级阅读真题以及答案,希望能为大家提供帮助!

section A

Directions:  In this section,  there is a passage with ten blanks.  You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.  Read the passage through carefully before makingyour choices.  Each choice in the bankis identifiedby a letter.  Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

"science and everyday life cannot and should not Be separated." Those  were the words uttered by pioneering British scientist Rosalind Franklin, who firmly believed that the pursuit of science should be 26 to all.

As a woman working in the first half of the 20th century, Franklin's  contriButions to some of the greatest scientific discoveries of our time including the structure of DNA  were  sadly  27  in  her lifetime .

More than 60 years  after  Franklin's  death, we  are  28  living in a different world, where women play an important part in every echelon  (阶层)  of our society  not  least in science,  innovation,  higher  education  and  research.  Uk  universities  are  world  leaders  when  it  comes to advancing  and  29  gender equality.

In the past decade , we have seen a  30  increase in England in the number of women accepted on to full-time undergraduate degrees in science,technology,engineering and maths (stem suBjects) . And in the  last  academic  year,women  31  for more than half of all stem  postgraduates  at  Uk universities.

Data shows us the 32 to success gets harder for women to climb the further up they go.Although women make up the majority of undergraduates in our universities,just under half of academic staff are female.At 33 levels,only a quarter of professors are women,and black women make up less than 2% of all female academic staff.

There are also stark differences in pay across grades.The gender pay gap based on median salaries across the sector in 2016 2017 was 13.7%.  34 there is still some way to go to ensure women are rising through the ranks to higher grade positions and being paid  35

A)accessible    F)effective   K)promoting

B)accounted    G)ladder     L)senjor

C)adaptation    H)misrcad   M)submission

D)appropriately  D nomination   N)suggesting

E)considerable     J overlooked   O)thankf ully

答案详解

26.【考点】语义推断题

A)【语法判断】空格位于that引导的宾语从句中,从句的主语是the pursuit of science,谓语是shouldbe______,因此应填入动词的过去分词构成被动语态或者填入形容词。

【语义判断】文章首句是富兰克林的观点:科学和日常生活不能也不应该被分开。空格所在宾语从句表达的是富兰克林坚信的观点。sth.beaccessible to all表示“所有人都可以使用/获得某物”,将accessible填入空格符合语义,故为答案。

27.【考点】语义推断题。

J)【语法判断】空格所在句的主语为Franklin'scontributions,主语后面的tosomeof the greatestscientificdiscoveriesof our time和including thestructure of DNA均为后置定语,修饰主语。空格位于谓语were sadly _______中,因此应填入动词的过去分词构成被动语态或者填入形容词。

【语义判断】空格所在句的主干指出,说来遗憾,富兰克林的贡献在她的一生中都被_______了。空格前的sadly表示“不幸地,遗憾地”,有负面含义。备选项中的overlooked填入空格,表示她的贡献被忽视了,符合句意,故为答案。

28.【考点】副词辨析题。

O)【语法判断】空格位于be动词are之后,现在分词living之前,且句子基本成分完整,因此空格处需要填入一个副词来修饰living。

【语义判断】由上一段可知,富兰克林生活在她的贡献被忽视的年代,而空格所在句指出我们生活在不同的世界,女性在各个阶层发挥着重要作用,由此可知空格处应填入正向的词。结合备选副词可知,thankfully“庆幸地,满怀感激地”符合文义。

29.【考点】动词辨析题。

K)【语法判断】and连接advancing“推进”和空格所填单词,表示并列,因此推断空格处应填入动词的-ing形式。

【语义判断】本句中的advancing.…genderequality表示“推进……性别平等”,因此空格处应填入一个与“推进”意思相关的词,表达英国大学为推进性别平等所做的努力。结合备选项可知,promoting“促进,增进”符合句意。

30.【考点】形容词辨析题。

E)【语法判断】空格位于不定冠词a和名词increase之间,应填入形容词性的词来修饰increase。

【语义判断】上一段提到英国大学在推进和促进性别平等方面处于世界领先地位,并列举了其取得的成就。此处提到,在过去的十年里,我们看到英国攻读科学、技术、工程和数学(Stem学科)全日制本科学位的女性人数_________增加。结合所给形容词性选项,considerable“相当大的”符合语义,故为答案。

31.【考点】动词辨析题。

B)【语法判断】空格所在句缺少谓语动词,故判断应填入动词。由句首的时间状语in the lastacademic year可推断本句时态是一般过去时,故此处应填入动词的过去式。

【语义判断】句首And说明本句句意与上句是并列或顺承的关系。上一句提到,在过去的十年里,英国攻读Stem学科的女性人数增加。由此可推断本句顺承上一句指出Stem学科女性研究生在英国大学中的占比。空格填入accounted与空后的for搭配,account for“占(一定数量或比例)”符合句意,故为答案。

32.【考点】名词辨析题。

G)【语法判断】由空格前的定冠词the可推断空格处应填入名词。

【语义判断】分析句子结构可知,空格处作climb的宾语,即to climb _____to success getsharder。结合备选名词选项可知,ladder既可以作“梯子”讲,又可以意为“(在机构、专业或社会中晋升的)阶梯,途径”,代入原文符合语境,故为答案。

33.【考点】形容词辨析题。

L)【语法判断】空格位于介词At和复数名词levels之间,应填入形容词性的词修饰levels.

【语义判断】本段旨在说明越往上,攀登通往成功的阶梯对女性来说就越艰难。空格前一句指出,女性虽然在本科生中占大多数,但在学术人员中占比不到一半。接下来应该是讲在另一个层面上,女性人数不多,由professors可知,这个层次是更高的层次,故选senior。

34.【考点】语义推断题。

N)【语法判断】空格前后句子基本成分均完整,因此空格处应填入连词或分词形式。

【语义判断】空前句意为:2016年至2017年,基于全行业薪酬中位数的性别薪酬差距为13.7%。空格后是要说明该数据所表明的问题或意义,结合所给选项,suggesting“显示,表明”符合此处语境,故为答案。

35.【考点】副词辨析题。

D)【语法判断】空格所在分句句子基本成分完整,应该填入副词修饰being paid.

【语义判断】分析句子结构可知,rising throughtheranks to higher grade positions和being paid语法和语义上是并列的,即社会应给予女性的权利,一个是晋升到更高级别的职位,一个是获得________薪酬。结合所给选项可知,appropriately符合句意,故为答案。

Section B

Directions:In this section,you are going to read a passage with ten statemenis atlached to it.Each Slatement conlains information given in one of the paragraphs.Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.You may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked with a letter.Ans ver the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

How to Eat Well

A)Why do so many Americans eat tons of processed food.the stuff that is correctly called junk(垃圾)and should really carry warning labels?

B)It's not because fresh ingredients are hard to come by.Supermarkets offer more variety than ever,and there are over four times as many farmers' markets in the US as there were 20 years ago.Nor is it for lack of available information.There areplenty of recipes(食谱),how-to videos and cooking classes available to anyone who has a computer,smartphone or television.If anything,the information is overwhelming.

C)And yet we aren't cooking.If you eat three meals a day and be have like most Americans,you probably get at least a third of your daily calories(卡路里) outside the home.Nearly two-thirds of us grab fast food once a week,and we get almost 25% of our daily calories from snacks.So we're cating out or taking in,and we don't sit down or we do,but we hurry.

D)Shouldn't preparing and consuming food be a source of comfort,pride,health,well-being,relaxation,sociability?Something that connects us to other humans?Why would we want to outsource(外包) this basic task,especially when outsourcing it is so harmful?

E)When I talk about cooking,I'm not talking about creating elaborate dinner parties or three-day science projects.I'm talking about simple,easy,everyday meals.My mission is to encourage green bands and those lacking time or money to feed themselves.That means we need modest,realistic expectations,and we need to teach people to cook food that's good enough to share with family and fricnds.

F)Perhaps a return to real cooking needn't be far off.A recent Harris poll revealed that 79% of Americans say they enjoy cooking and 30%“love it”;14% admit to not enjoying kitchen work and just 7% won't go near the stove at all.But this doesn't necessarily translate to real cooking,and the result of this survey shouldn't surprise anyone:52% of those 65 or older cook at home five or more times per week;only a third of young people do.

G)Back in the 1950s most of us grew up in houscholds where Mom cooked virtually every night.The intention to put a home-cooked meal on the table was pretty much universal.Most people couldn't afford to do other wise.

H) Although frozen dinners were invented in the,40s,  their  popularity didn,t Boom until televisions Became popular a decade or so later .  since then,  packaged,  pre-prepared meals have Been what,s for dinner.  The microwave and fast-food chains were the Biggest catalysts  (催化剂),  But  the  Big food companies    which want to sell anything except the raw ingredients that go into cooking    made the home cook an endangered species .

I) still,  I find it strange that only a third of young people report preparing meals at home regularly.  Isn,t this the same crowd that rails against processed junk and champions craft cooking? And isn,t this the generation who say they,re concerned aBout their health and the well-Being of the planet? If these are truly the values of many young people,  then their Behavior doesn,t match their Beliefs.

J) There have been half-hearted but well-puBlicized efforts by some food companies to reduce calories in their processed foods,  but the standard American Diet is still the polar opposite of  the healthy,  mostly  plant- Based  diet  that  just  about  every  expert  says  we  should  Be  eating.  considering  that  the  government,s standards are not nearly ambitious enough,  the picture is clear:  by not cooking at home ,  we're not eating the right things,  and the consequences are hard to overstate .

K) To help quantify  (量化)  the costs of a poor diet,  I recently tried to estimate this impact in terms of a most famous food,  the burger  (汉堡包) .  I concluded that the profit from burgers is more than offset  (抵消)  by the damage they cause in health proBlems and environmental harm.

L) Cooking real food is the best defense   not to mention that any meal you,re likely to eat at home contains aBout 200 fewer calories than one you would eat in a restaurant.

M) To those Americans for whom money is a concern ,  my advice is simple:  Buy what you can afford,  and cook it yourself.   The  common  prescription  is  to  primarily  shop  the  grocery store ,   since  that,s where  fresh produce,  meat and seafood,  and dairy are .  And to save money and still eat well you don't need local,  organic ingredients;  all you need is real food.  I'm not saying local food isn,t Better;  it is .  But there is plenty of decent food in the grocery stores .

N) The other sections you should get to know are the frozen foods and the canned goods . Frozen produce is still produce;  canned tomatoes are still tomatoes .  Just make sure you,re getting real food without tons of added salt or sugar .  Ask yourself,  would Grandma consider this food? Does it look like something that might occur in nature? It's pretty much commonsense :  you want to buy food,  not unidentifiaBle foodlike objects .

O) You don't have to hit the grocery store daily,  nor do you need an aBundance of skill.  Since fewer than half of Americans say they cook at an intermediate level and only 20% descriBe their cooking skills as advanced,  the crisis is one of confidence. And the only remedy for that is practice . There's nothing mysterious about cooking the evening meal.  You just have to do a little thinking ahead and redefine what qualifies as dinner .  Like any skill,  cooking gets easier as you do it more ;  everytime you cook,  you advance your level of skills .  someday you won't even need recipes .  My advice is that you not pay attention to the numBer of steps and ingredients,  because they can be deceiving.

P) Time,  I realize ,  is the biggest obstacle to cooking for most people .  You must adjust your priorities to find time to cook.  For instance,  you can move a TV to the kitchen and watch your favorite shows while you're standing at the sink.  No one is asking you to give up activities you like,  but if you,re watching food shows on TV,  try cooking instead.

36.  Cooking benefits people in many ways and enables them to connect with one another.

37.  Abundant information aBout cooking is available either online or on TV.

38.  Young people do less cooking at home than the elderly these days . 

39.  Cooking skills can be improved with practice .

40.  In the mid-20th century,most families ate dinner at home instead of eating out.

41.  Even those short of time or money should be encouraged to cook for themselves and their family. 

42.  Eating food not cooked by ourselves can cause serious consequences .

43.  To eat well and still save money, people should buy fresh food and cook it themselves . 

44.  we get a fairly large portion of calories from fast food and snacks .

45.  The popularity of TV led to the popularity of frozen food. 

答案详解

36.【定位】由connect with oneanother定位到D)段前两句。

D)【精析】细节归纳题。定位句都是反问句,这两句的真实意思是说,烹饪和享用食物会让人们感到

舒适、骄傲、健康、幸福、休闲以及与人交往的快乐,能够将我们与他人联系在一起。题干是对这两句的归纳总结,故答案为D)。

37.【定位】由题干中的information、online和TV定位到B)段后三句。

B)【精析】细节归纳题。定位段前半部分说明,在美国,购买用于烹饪的食材非常方便。定位句提到,信息也是足够充足,只要有电脑、智能手机或电视,任何人都可以接触到大量的食谱、教学视频和烹饪课程,应该说,此类信息铺天盖地。题干是对这三句的归纳总结,故答案为B)。

38.【定位】由题干中的Young people和the elderly定位到F)段末句。

F)【精析】同义转述题。定位段中通过数据提示了目前美国人对于在家做饭这件事情的态度,最后涉及年轻人和上年纪的人做饭的不同频率:在65岁及以上年龄的人群中,有52%的人每周至少在家做五次饭;而年轻人中,只有三分之一的人这样做。不到三分之一与52%相比,明显要少。题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为F)。

39.【定位】由题干中的practice定位到O)段第三句。

O)【精析】细节辨认题。定位段开头就指出,做饭不需要拥有大量的技巧,并在定位句中明确指出,唯一的办法就是实践。后面提到,每做一顿饭,烹饪水平就会提高一点,故答案为O)。

40.【定位】由题干中的mid-20th century定位到G)段。

G)【精析】细节归纳题。定位段中指出,20世纪50年代,在我们大多数人成长的家庭中,妈妈几乎每天晚上都会做饭。将家常饭菜摆上桌是非常普遍的想法。当时大多数人没有出去吃的经济能力。也就是说,那时大多数家庭都不会外出就餐,而是自己在家做饭吃。题干中的mid-20thcentury是对原文中1950s的同义转述,题干是对该段的归纳总结,故答案为G)。

41.【定位】由题干中的short of time or money、encouraged和family定位到E)段第三、四句。

E)【精析】同义转述题。由定位句可知,对于新手和那些没时间或没钱的人来说,也应该鼓励他们自

己喂饱自己,学会烹饪,与家人和朋友分享做好的食物。题干中的short of是对原文中lacking的同义转述,故答案为E)。

42.【定位】由题干中的consequences定位到J)段末句。

J【精析】同义转述题。由定位句可知,政府对于食品安全的标准并不十分严格,如果人们再不注意,还是大量食用非家庭烹制的食品,其后果十分严重,而且再怎么强调后果的严重性都不过分。也就是说,会造成极其严重的后果,题干中的cause serious consequences是对原文中theconsequences are hard to overstate的同义转述,故答案为J。

43.【定位】由题干中的eat well、save money和cook it themselves定位到M)段前三句。

M)【精析】细节归纳题。定位段开头就指出,对于那些经济上不怎么宽裕的美国人来说,作者的建议很简单:购买那些能买得起的东西,自己做饭。接下来,作者向人们推荐了销售新鲜食材的小型杂货店,说想要既省钱又吃好,不见得要去购买有机食材,只要是真正的食物就可以了。题干是对这三句的归纳总结,故答案为M)。

44.【定位】由题干中的calories和snacks定位到C)段第二、三句

C)【精析】同义转述题。定位段中通过数字说明了快餐和零食所含的高热量。根据数据,人们每日卡路里摄入量中,可能至少有三分之一不是来自家常饭菜。有将近三分之二的人一周吃一次快餐,我们从零食中获取的卡路里几乎能达到日常卡路里摄入量的将近25%。题干是对定位句的同义转述,故答案为C)。

45.【定位】由题干中的popularity,TV和frozenfood定位到HD段首句。

H)【精析】同义转述题。由定位句可知,虽然在20世纪40年代就发明了冷冻食品,但直到十几年之后,它们才在电视机普及后受到人们的大肆欢迎。题干是对原文theirpopularity didn'tboom until televisions became popular的同义转述,故答案为HD。

section C

Directions! There are 2 passages in this section .  Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements .  For each of them there are four choices markedA),B), C) andD) .  You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre . 

passage one

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the foLLowing passage.

The wallet is heading for extinction .  As a day-to-day essential , it will die off with the generation who read print  newspapers .  The  kind  of  shopping   where  you  handover  notes  and  countout  change  in return   now happens only in the most minor of our retail encounters , like buying a Bar of chocolate or a pint of  milk,  from  a  corner  shop.  At  the  shops  where  you  spend  any  real  money,  that  money  is increasingly abstracted.  And  this  is  more  and more  true, the higher up the scale you go .  At  the most cutting-edge retail stores   Victoria Beckham on Dover street, for instance   you don't go and stand at any kind of cash register, when you decide  to pay.  The staff are equipped with ipads to take your payment while you relax on a sofa .

which is nothing more or less than excellent service , if you have the money.  But across society, the abstraction of the idea of cash makes me uneasy.  Maybe I'm just old-fashioned.  But earning money isn't quick or easy for most of us .  Isn't it a bit weird that spending it should happen in half a blink (眨眼)  of an eye? Doesn't a wallet   that time-honoured Friday-night feeling of pleasing, promising fatness   represent something that matters*

But I'll leave the economics to the experts . What bothers me about the death of the wallet is the change it represents in our physical environment.  Everything about the look and feel of a wallet   the way the fastenings and materials wear and tear and loosen with age, the plastic and paper and gold and silver, and handwritten phone numbers and printed cinema tickets    is  the very opposite of what our world is becoming.  The opposite of  a wallet is a smartphone or an ipad.  The rounded edges , cool  glass, smooth and unknowable  as  a  pebble   (鹅 卵 石) .  Instead  of  digging  through  pieces  of  paper  and  peering  into corners , we move our fingers left and right.  No more counting out coins .  show your wallet, if  you still have one .  It may not be here much longer . 

46. What is happening to the wallet

A)  It is disappearing. 

B)  It is being fattened. 

C)  It is becoming costly.

D)  It is changing in style .

47. How are business transactions done in big modern stores?

A) Individually.                                                           

B) Electronically.  

C) In the abstract.                                                        

D) via a cash register.

48. What makes the author feel uncomfortaBle nowadays?

A) Saving money is becoming a thing of the past.

B) The pleasing Friday-night feeling is fading. 

C) Earning money is getting more difficult.

D) Spending money is so fast and easy.

49. Why does the author choose to write aBout what,s happening to the wallet?

A) It represents a change in the modern world.

B) It has something to do with everyBody,s life.    

C) It marks the end of a time-honoured tradition . 

D) It is the concern of contemporary economists.

50. What can we infer from the passage about the author?

A) He is resistant to social changes.

B) He is against technological progress.

C) He feels reluctant to part with the traditional wallet.  

D) He feels insecure in the ever-changing modern world.

答案详解

46.【定位】由题干中的happening to the wallet定位到首段第一句。

A)【精析】细节辨认题。首段开篇点明,钱包正在走向灭绝。因此,A)“它正在消失”符合文义,故答案为A)。

【避错】文章第二段末句提到了fatness,作者在此描述了历来钱包里厚厚的一沓钱所带来的美好感觉,而非钱包的现状,故排除B);文章指出,钱包正在走向灭绝,即使用的人越来越少,由此可知,钱包的价格应随着销售量减少而降低,不大可能变得昂贵,文中也未提及钱包是否变得昂贵,故排除C);文中未提及钱包的风格是否发生改变,故排除D)。

47.【定位】由题干中的in big modernstores定位到首段最后两句。

B)【精析】细节辨认题。定位句指出,在高端的维多利亚·贝克汉姆商店里,人们不需要站在收银台前付款,在沙发上休息时用电子设备即可付款。因此,答案为B)。

【避错】文中未提及商品交易是否单独完成,故排除A);C)是根据首段第四句中money is increasingl yabstracted设置的干扰项,这里是说钱变得越来越抽象,而不是商业交易的方式变得抽象,故排除C);定位句提到,当你决定付钱的时候,不需要站在任何收银台前,即不需要使用收银机,故排除D)。

48.【定位】由题干中的uncomfortable定位到第二段第二至五句

D)【精析】细节辨认题。第二段介绍作者的看法。定位句指出,现金概念的抽象化使作者感到不安。究其原因是作者认为挣钱不容易,而花钱却在一眨眼的瞬间。D)“花钱如此快速轻松”符合文义,故答案为D)。

【避错】文中未提及存钱的改变,故排除A);第二段最后一句提到了周五晚上愉快的感觉,但没有指出这种感觉是否在消逝,故排除B);第二段第四句提到,对于大多数人来说,挣钱并不是迅速简单的事,但没有提及挣钱是否变得更加困难,故排除C)。

49.【定位】由题干中的Why和what's happeningtothe wallet定位到第三段第二句。

A)【精析】细节辨认题。what's happening to thewallet指的是钱包正在走向灭绝这一趋势。定位句提到,钱包的消失给作者带来的困扰是关于它所代表的在客观环境中发生的改变。因此,A)“它代表现代世界的变化”符合文义,故答案为A)。

【避错】B)“它与每个人的生活有关”和C)“它标志着一个历史悠久的传统的结束”是原文提到的事实,但并不是作者写作的原因,因此排除;第三段首句提到把经济学留给专家,暗指作者要表述的钱包问题不属于经济学范畴,D)“它是当代经济学家所关心的事”是对本句的曲解,因此排除。

50.【定位】由题干中的infer from thepasage定位到整篇文章。

C)【精析】推理判断题。通读全文可知,本文主要介绍了随着科技的发展,钱包逐渐消失的问题。文章最后一句指出,如果你还有钱包的话就展示出来吧。它也许不会长存于世了。这表达了作者不愿意舍弃传统钱包,因此答案为C)。

【避错】通读全文可知,作者只是表达了由于科技迅速发展,传统支付方式被逐渐取代的不安和担忧,并没有抵制社会改变或反对科技进步,也没有表达在瞬息万变的现代社会中没有安全感,故可

排除A)、B)和D)。

passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the foLLowing passage.

It's late in the evening:  time to close the book and turn off the computer . You're done for the day. What you may not realize ,  however,  is that the learning process actually continues  in your dreams.

It might  sound  like  science  fiction,  but  researchers  are  increasingly  focusing  on  the  relationship between the knowledge and skills our brains absorb during the day and  the  fragmented ,  often bizarre imaginings they  generate  at  night.   scientists  have  found  that  dreaming  about  a  task  we've  learned  is associated with improved performance in that activity ( suggesting that there's some truth to the popular notion that we're “ getting” a foreign language once we Begin dreaming in it) .  what's more,  researchers are coming to recognize that dreaming is an essential part of understanding ,  organizing and retaining what we learn.

While we sleep ,  research  indicates,  the  brain  replays the patterns of activity it experienced during waking hours,  allowing us to enter what one psychologist calls a neural (神经的)  virtual reality.  A vivid example of such replay can be seen in a video researchers made recently about sleep disorders.  They taught a series of dance moves to a group of patients with conditions like sleepwalking ,  in which the sleeper engages in the kind physical movement that does not normally occur during sleep.  They then videotaped the subjects as they slept.  Lying in bed,  eyes  closed,  one  female patient on the  tape performs the dance moves she learned earlier.

This shows  that  while  our  bodies  are  at  rest,   our  brains  are  drawing  what,s  important  from  the information and events we,ve recently encountered ,  then integrating that data into the vast store of what we already know.  In a 2010 study,  resear chers at Harvard Medical school reported that college students who dreamed about a computer maze (迷宫) task they had learned showed a 10-fold improvement in their ability to find their way through the maze compared with participants who did not dream about the task.

Robert stickgold,  one  of  the  Harvard  researchers,  suggests  that  studying  right  before  bedtime  or taking a nap following a study session in the afternoon might increase the odds of dreaming about the material.  Think about that as your head hits the pillow tonight.

51.  What is scientists, finding about dreaming?

A) It involves disconnected, weird images.

B) It resembles fragments of science fiction.

C) Dreaming about a learned task bettersits performance.

D) Dreaming about things being learned disturbs one's sleep.

52. What happens when one enters a dream state?

A) The body continues to act as if the sleeper were awake.

B) The neural activity of the brain will become intensified.

C) The brain behaves as if it were playing a virtual reality video game. 

D) The brain once again experiences the learning activities of the day.

53. What does the brain do while we are sleeping?

A) It systematizes all the data collected during the day.

B) It substitutes old information with new data.

C) It processes and absorbs newly acquired data.

D) It classifies information and places it in different files.

54.What does Robert stickgold suggest about enhancing learning? 

A) Having a little sleep after studying in the day.

B) staying up late before going to bed.

C) Having a dream about anything.

D) Thinking about the odds of dreaming about the material.

55.What can be inferred about dreaming from the passage?

A) We may enhance our learning through dreaming.

B) Dreaming improves your language aBility.

C) All sleepwalkers perform dance moves when they are sleeping.

D) Taking a nap after learning can help you find the way through the maze.

答案详解

51.【定位】由题干中的scientists'finding aboutdreaming定位到第二段第二句。

C)【精析】细节辨认题。定位句提到,科学家们发现,梦到我们已经学过的一项任务与在该活动中的表现有所提高有关。由此可知,梦到一项学过的任务会改善它的表现,故答案为C)。

【避错】本段第一句提到,研究人员越来越关注我们的大脑在白天吸收的知识和技能与它们在夜间产生的零碎的、经常是奇异的想象之间的关系。由此可知,我们的大脑会在夜间产生零碎的、奇异的想象,而不是梦到不连贯的、奇异的图像,故排除A)“它包括不连贯的、奇异的图像”;本段开头提到,这听起来可能像科幻小说,但研究人员正越来越关注我们的大脑在白天吸收的知识和技能与它们在夜间产生的零碎的、经常是奇异的想象之间的关系。由此可知,作者并不认为做梦像科幻小说,而是指大脑在夜间产生的想象与白天的经历有关这一点像科幻小说,故排除B)“它就像科幻小说的片段”;文中并未提及D)“梦到正在学习的东西会干扰睡眠”,故排除。

52.【定位】由题干中的a dream state定位到第三段第一句。

D)【精析】细节辨认题。定位句提到,当我们进入睡眠,大脑回放它在我们清醒时所经历的活动的模式,使我们进入一种某位心理学家称为神经虚拟现实的状态。由此可知,当我们睡着时,大脑会再到学习一次体验白天的学习活动,故答案为D)。

【避错】文中并未提及A)“身体继续像睡眠者醒着一样活动”、B)“大脑的神经活动会变得更加活跃”和C)“大脑像在玩虚拟现实电子游戏”,故均排除。

53.【定位】由题干中的brain和sleeping以及选项定位到第四段第一句。

C)【精析】推理判断题。定位句提到,当我们的身体处于休息状态时,我们的大脑会从我们最近接触到的信息和事件中提取重要信息,然后将这些信息整合到我们已知的大量信息中。提取、整合信息的过程也就是处理、吸收信息的过程。由此可推断,在睡眠状态下,大脑处理和吸收新获得的信息,故答案为C)。

【避错】定位句提到,大脑提取重要的新信息,并整合到已有的大量信息中,但并不是将所有信息都系统化,故排除A):定位句说的是大脑将新信息整合到已知信息中,而不是替代已知信息,故排除B);文中并没有提到大脑将信息分类并把它放在不同的文件中,故排除D)。

54.【定位】由题干中的Robert Stickgold和suggest定位到文章最后一段第一句。

A)【精析】细节辨认题。定位句指出,罗伯特·斯蒂克戈尔德建议,在睡觉前学习或者在下午学习后小睡一会儿,可能会增加梦到这些材料的可能性。由此可知,白天学习后小睡一会儿可能会增加梦到学习材料的可能性,进而提高学习能力,故A)为答案。

【避错】定位句说的是在睡觉前学习可能会增加梦到学习材料的可能性,而不是说睡前熬夜到很晚,故排除B);定位句指出,在学习前或学习后睡觉可能会增加梦到学习材料的可能性,并不是说梦到什么都可以,故排除C);定位段最后一句顺承前文指出,当你的头碰到枕头的时候,想一想这个,即想一想这个建议,而不是想一想梦到学习材料的可能性,故排除D)。

55.【定位】本题需要统览整篇文章得出答案。

A)【精析】推理判断题。通读全文可知,作者介绍了几个与做梦相关的实验研究,指出做梦可能使人们提高学习能力,故答案为A)。

【避错】文章第二段第二句提到了一个流行观点,即一旦开始梦到外语,我们就正在“掌握”这门外语。作者通过介绍科学家的发现证明这个流行观点是有一定道理的,但并不能证明做梦可以提高语言能力,故排除B);文章第三段提到了研究人员拍摄的一段关于睡眠障碍的视频,他们教一组有诸如梦游等症状的病人跳一连串的舞蹈动作。在梦游状态下,病人会做一些在睡眠中通常不会出现的身体动作。研究人员对受试者的睡眠过程进行了录像,发现一位女病人闭着眼睛躺在床上,做着她之前学过的舞蹈动作。由此可知,这位病人是在刻意学习了舞蹈动作以后才出现了在睡梦中做舞蹈动作的行为,而非所有梦游者都会出现这一行为,故排除C);文章最后一段提到罗伯特·斯蒂克戈尔德的建议:在睡觉前学习或者在下午学习后小睡一会儿,可能会增加梦见这些材料的可能性。但并不能由此推出学习后小睡一会儿会帮助你在迷宫中找到路,故排除D)。


用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思杭州市绿地上海城(别墅)英语学习交流群

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐