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2022年12月大学英语四级阅读真题以及答案(三)

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2024年07月10日

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英语四级阅读,作为大学英语能力的重要评估指标,不仅检验了学生对词汇、语法的掌握,更考察了其阅读理解和信息筛选的能力。在全球化背景下,提升这一能力对于拓宽视野、增进跨文化交流至关重要。今天,小编将分享2022年12月大学英语四级阅读真题以及答案(卷三),希望能为大家提供帮助!

Section A

Directions: In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank ollowing the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Fach choice in the bank is identified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding  letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not useany of the words in the bank more than once.

Phones influence all aspects of teenage life.Ninety-five percent of Americans ages 13 to 17 have a smartphone or have access to one,and nearly half report using the internet“almost  26  ”.

But as recent survey data and interviews have suggested,many teens find much of that time to be unsatisfyingly spent.Continuous  27  shouldn't be mistaken for endless enjoyment.A new  28 representative survey about“screen time and device distractions”from the Pew Research Center indicates that it's not just parents  who think teenagers areworryingly  29  from their phones—many teens themselves do too.Fifty-four percent of the 13-to-17-year-oldssurveyed said they spend too much time  30  in their phones.

Vicky Rideout,who runs a research firm that studies children's interactions with media and technology,was not  surprised by this finding.She saysit's hardly  31  to teenagers.“They are dealing with the same challenges that adults are,as far as they are living in the  32  of a tech cnvironment designed to suck as much of their time onto their devices as possible,”Rideout says.

The way parents interact with technology can  33  the  way they interact with their kids.Rideout thus thinks it's up to parents to model good  34  :Kidstend to take note if theirparents put their phone away at dinner or charge it in another room while they sleep.Witnessing habits like that can help kids “realize that they can  35  some more control over their devices,”she says.

A)absorbed      I)recruited

B)addicted      J)shape

C)bchavior      K)solution

D)constantly     L)specific

E)context       M)summary

F)exercise       N)usage

G)inseparable    O)vaguely

H)nationally 

答案解析

26.D)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,13岁至17岁的美国人中,95%的人拥有智能手机或可以使用智能手机,近一半的人表示“几乎_____ ”使用互联网。由句意可知,本句说明美国青少年使用网络的频率,因此本空应填入程度副词,由此确定答案为D)constantly。备选的其他副词均没有此含义,因此排除。

27.N)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,连续_____不应被误认为是无尽的享受。本句是对上一句 “许多青少年对花在手机上的大部分时间并不满意”的进一步阐述,因此本空指的是使用手机,应填入含有“使用”意义的名词,由此确定答案为N)usage。

28.H)【语义判断】空格所在分句的意思是,佩尤研究中心关于“屏幕使用时间与设备干扰”的一项新的_____代表性调查表明…。由句意可知,本空应填入表达某个级别的副词,以限定representative的范围,由此确定答案为H)nationally。

29.G)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,佩尤研究中心的调查表明,不仅父母担忧青少年与手机_____,许多青少年自己也是如此。下一句提到,在接受调查的13岁至17岁的青少年中,54%的人说他们花太多时间在手机上。因此本空应填入能够说明青少年与手机密不可分的关系的形容词。备选形容词中,A)absorbed 、B)addicted和G)inseparable都有此含义,但是A)absorbed  和B)addicted均不能与from搭配,因此确定本题答案为G)inseparable。

30.A)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,在接受调查的13岁至17岁的青少年中,54%的人说他们花太多时间_____于手机。结合上一句内容可知,本空应填入能表达青少年浪费太多时间在手机上的词。A)absorbed有“耗费,耗去(大量金钱、时间等)”的意思,符合句意与句子结构,因此,答案为A)absorbed。

31.L)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,她说这并不是青少年_____。结合下一句可知,他们(青少年) 面临着和成年人一样的挑战。所以这并不是青少年所特有的,因此本空应填入含有“特有的,特定的”意义的形容词,由此确定答案为L)specific。

32.E)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,只要他们生活在科技环境的_____中,即旨在将尽可能多的时间吸到设备上的环境中,他们就面临着和成年人一样的挑战。由句意可知,科技环境是青少年生活的大背景,因此本空应填入含有“背景,环境”意义的 名词,由此确定答案为E)context。

33.J)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,父母与科技互动的方式可以_____他们与孩子互动的方式。将备选动词原形分别代入句子中,只有shape“影响,形成”符合句意,由此确定答案为J)shape。

34.C)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,赖德奥特认为父母应该树立良好的_____榜样。下一句提到了一些良好的父母的行为,比如吃饭时把手机收起来,或者睡觉时把手机放在另一个房间充电,因此本空应填入含有“行为”意义的名词,由此确定答案为C)behavior。

35.F)【语义判断】空格所在句的意思是,见证这样的习惯可以帮助孩子们“意识到他们可以对他们的设备_____更多的控制”。备选动词原形只有F)exercise,意为“行使(权利、权力或自身特质)”,由此确定答案为F)exercise。

Section B

Directions: In this section,you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it.Fach statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs.Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.You may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked witha letter.Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Evil Genius

A)A few years ago I found myself teaching a university class on evil.It was for third-year criminology students to help them contextualize theory and researchwithin controversial current topics.It was a huge success.The debates were heated and interesting.I could see people's views change within the course of a single lecture.Over the past 13 years,as a student,lecturerand researcher,I've enjoyed discussing the science of evil with anyone willingto listen.What I like most is destroying the cliche( 陈词滥调)of good and evil,and replacing them with scientific insight.We needa more informed way of discussing behavior that at first we cannot,or should  not,begin to understand.

B)Without understanding,we risk dehumanizing others,writing off human beings simply because we don't comprehend them.We must try to understand what we have labeled evil.We tend to think evil is something that other people are.We think of ourselves as“good people”,and even when we do morally wrong things,we understandthe context  of our decisions.With others,however,it is far easier to write them off.If their actions deviate(偏离)substantially from what we consider acceptable,we may label them evil.We need to be careful with this.Calling someone evil is often similar to saying they cannot change,and perhaps aren't even a human at all.However,when  you actually go monster-hunting,and you look deeply at the people behindshocking behavior,you may be surprised.

C)As a child I used to love the Scooby-Doo cartoons.Arriving in their“Mystery Machine”,the gang would have to find a monsterwho was terrorizing a neighborhood.They would run around looking for clues and at the end unmask the bad guy.It was always a normal person in a costume.There were no monsters.Like the Scooby crew,we  may find ourselves hunting for an casy fix,one word for people who do bad things.But if we take a good look,the word ‘evil'is insufficient—there are no simple explanations for why humans do bad things:instead there are many,and they are all marvelously different.

D)Evil is typically referred to when there is deviance from social norms:formal deviance is the violation of laws,like theft,murder,and attacks,while informal devianceinvolves violations of socialnorms, like lying.Evil behavior is typically thought to embrace one or both forms.However,deviance can also describe a behavior that simply differs from the norm.

E)Perhaps this iswhere we can findthe good side of our badside.Deviating from the norm can make us villains(恶棍),but it can also make usheroes.A child deviatesfrom social pressures when they stand up for another child being bullied in school.A soldier deviateswhen they choose not to follow orders to kill an innocent civilian.An employee in a big tech company deviates when they expose its wrongdoings.

F)Creativity is also a deviation.Here,too,things are complex.Thinking creatively has given us modern medicine,technology and modern political structures,but it has also given us poison and nuclear weapons.Great benefit and great harm can come from the same human tendency.

G)In a research paper,Evil Genius,published in 2014,the behavioral scientists Francesca Gino and Scott Wiltermuth wanted to examine whether people who behave unethically in one task are more creative than others  on a subsequent task,even after controlling for differences in baseline creative skills.The unethical behavior they chose was dishonesty.

H)Over five experiments researchers gave participants tasks in which they could cheat.In one study,they were given matrixes(矩阵)and had to find two numbers that added up to 10.Participants were asked to self-report how well they did at the end of the study:59%cheated by saying that they solved more matrixes than they actually had.

I)After each task,the researchers measured participants'performance on the Remote Associates Test. This shows participants three words at a time that appear to be unrelated,and the person has to think of afourth word that isassociated with all of them.For example,youmight get“Fox,Man,Peep”,or “Dust,Cereal,Fish”.In order  to find the linking words(“Hole”for the first,“Bowl”for the second) you need to be creative.The more you get right,the more creative you arethought to be because you have come up with uncommon associations.

J)For everyone of the five studies,they found the same thing—participants who cheated in the first task didbetter on the creativity task.Why?Like other forms of unethical behavior,lyingmeans breaking rules.It  involves being deviant,going against the social principle that people should tell the truth. Similarly,being  creative involves“thinking outside the box”,deviating from expectations.They involve similar thought  patterns,sostimulating one stimulates the other.Can we learn from this? Perhaps.To be more creative,we could try lying in a controlled environment.Find online logicgames and cheat at them,play Scrabble(拼字游戏)with a dictionary,or write a story about something that is untrue?Such tasks can get our brainsthinking flexibly,beyond our normal comfortzone.This is not  a call to become a compulsive(强迫性的)liar,but a controlled liar.

K)In addition to benefits for creativity,deviance can be a good thing inother ways.Even Philip Zimbardo,the author of the Stanford prison experiment,who showed howeasily we can be led to behave badly,believes that the future of deviancerescarch may lie more in understandingextreme pro-social behavior,such as heroism.Like  evil,we often view heroism as only apossibility for outliers for people who are abnormal.But Zimbardo asks:“What if the capability to act heroically is also fundamentally ordinary and available to all of us?”Some  say we should never meet our heroes,lest they disappoint us when we find out how normal they are.But this  should be liberating,not disappointing.We are all capable ofbehaving like outliers.It's time for us to understand deviance,and realize its potential for good as well as for harm.

36.A behavior that doesnot conform to social norms may bedescribed as being deviant.

37.Various experiments found that participants who cheated in the initial task performed better in the creativity test.

38.People may be simply considered evil if their behaviors are morally unacceptable to us.

39.The research published by two scientists was intended to examine the relationshipbetween dishonesty and creativity.

40.The author's lectures sparked lively discussions in his class.

41.The researchers tested the participants'creativity by asking them to play a word game.

42.It is time we realized that deviance may be capable of doing both good andharm to individuals and society.

43.The reasonsfor people's evil behaviors can be explained inmore ways than one.

44.The math task inone experiment was designed to testparticipants'tendency to cheat.

45.Some creative ideas have turned out to do harm to human society.

答案解析

36.【定位】由题干中的 bchavior、social norms,be dccribed as和dcviant定位到文章D)段最后一句。

D)【精析】同义转述题。定位句提到,反常也可以描述一种只是与正常不同的行为。题干中的A behavior that does not conform to social norms对应定位句中的 a behavior that simply differs from the norm;题干中的be described as对应定 位句中的describe;题干中的being deviant 对应定位句中的 deviance。题干是对定位句的同义转述,故答案为D)。

37.【定位】由题干中的 Various experiments、participants who cheated in the initial task、better和creativity test定位到文章J)段第一句。

J)【精析】同义转述题。定位句提到,对于五项研究中的每一项,他们都发现了同样的事情——在第一项任务中作弊的参与者在创造性任务中表现得更好。题干中的Various experiments对应定位句中的every one of the five studies;题干中的 participants who cheated in the initial task performed better in the creativity test 对应定位句中的participants who cheated in the first task did better on the creativity task。题干是对定位句的同义转述,故答案为J)。

38.【定位】由题干中的evil、behaviors和unaceptable to us定位到文章B)段第六句。

B)【精析】同义转述题。定位句提到,如果别人的行为严重偏离我们认为可以接受的范围,我们可能会给他们贴上邪恶的标签。题干中的People may be simply considered evil对应定位句中的we may label them evil;题干中的their behaviors are morally unacceptable to us对应定位句中的their actions deviate substantially from what we consider acceptable,题干是对定位句的同义转述,故答案为B)。

39.【定位】由题干中的 rescarch、published、two scientists 和the relationship between dishonesty and creativity定位到文章G)段。

G)【精析】细节归纳题。定位段提到,在2014年发表的一篇名为《邪恶天才》的研究论文中,科学家弗朗西斯卡·吉诺和斯科特·威尔特穆斯想要研究,在一项任务中表现不道德的人在后续任务中是否比其他人更有创造力。他们选择的不道德行为是不诚实。题干中的The research published by two scientists对应定位段中的a research paper,Evil Genius..the behavioral scientists Francesca Gino and Scott Wiltermuth;题干中的 intended to examine the relationship between dishonesty and creativity对应定位段中的wanted to examine whether people who behave unethically in one task are more creative than others on a subsequent task...The unethica behavior they chose was dishonesty。题干是对定位段的概括归纳,故答案为G)。

40.【定位】由题干中的The author's lecturcs和sparked lively discussions定位到文章A)段第一至四句。

A)【精析】细节归纳题。定位句提到,几年前,“我”在大学里教一门关于邪恶的课程。这是为犯罪学三年级的学生准备的,帮助他们结合当前一些有争议的话题背景来理解理论和研究。这是一个巨大的成功。辩论激烈而有趣。题干中The author's lectures对应定位句中的I found myself teaching auniverity class;题干中的sparked lively

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section.Fach passage isfollowed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are fourchoices marked A),B),C)and D).You should decide on the bestchoice and mark the corresponding letter onAnswer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Even though we are living in an age where growing old is thought of as an inevitable misery,this doctor has been changing the game for seniors over the last 25 years.

It all started in 1991 when the Harvard-educated physician was transferred from working in a stressful emergency room to being the medical director of a nursing home in upstate New York.The depressing and regimented (严格管制的)environment got him thinking on what exactly could improve the residents' conditions.

Even though animals in nursing homes were illegal at the time,Dr.Bill Thomas took a chance.Based on a hunch(直觉) ,he brought in two dogs,four cats,hens,rabbits,100birds,amultitude of plants,a flower garden,and a vegetable patch.

The change was dramatic.There was a 50% drop in medical prescriptions along with adramatic decrease in death  rates—but most importantly,the residents were simply happier.

Dr.Thomas's approach,named the Fden Alternative,has driven nursing homes to allow a more autonomous (自主的)and creative living space for their elderly.It erases the belief that growing old means growing useless.He encourages residents to think of their age as an enriching new phase of life rather than the cnd of it.

Thomas,now a speaker and author of several books,also created small,independently-run residences with theirown bedrooms and bathrooms,and he has been preaching a singular message that getting old is not a bad thing.

“Within six weeks,they had to send a truck around to pick up all the wheelchairs,”Thomas told the Washington Post.“You know why most people in nursing homes use wheelchairs?Becausethe buildings are so big.”

The 56-year-old doctor's methods have been adopted inAustralia,Japan,Canada,andAmerica with enormous success.Last year he published Second Wind:Navigating the Passage to a Slower,Deeper,and More Connected  Life,a guide on how to shift our perspectives on aging and growth.

He is currently traveling through North America performing with his guitar and his enthusiasm on his Age of Disruption Tour.

46.What has Bill Thomas been doing for a quarter of a century?

A)Transforming people's lifestyle.

B)Honoring his Harvard education.

C)Changingpeople's philosophy of life.

D)Shifting people'sperspective on aging.

47.Why did Bill Thomas try something different in the nursinghome?

A)He wanted to make it more pleasant for seniors.

B)He wanted to apply his Harvard training to practice.

C)He felt it his duty to revolutionize its management.

D)He felt disappointed working in the environment.

48.What do we learn about Bill Thomas bringing animals and plants into the nursing home? 

A)He made a mess of thenursing home.

B)He did something all professionals would do.

C)Hewoninstant support from the state authorities.

D)He acted in violation of the state law.

49.What has Bill Thomas been persistently advocating?

A)Good health is not just aprivilege of the young.

B)Nursing homes should be strictly limited in size.

C)Getting old is by no means something miserable.

D)Residences for seniors should be run independently.

50.How is Bill Thomas'snew concept received?

A)It is gaining ground in many countries.

B)It is being heatedly debated worldwide.

C)It is considered revolutionary everywhere.

D)It is winning approval from the government.

答案解析

46.【定位】由题干中的Bill Thomas和a quarter of a century定位到第一段、第五段和第八段。

D)【精析】推理判断题。本文第一段概括托马斯医生的主要成就:在过去的25年里,这位医生一直在改变这场老年人的游戏。第五段末句指出,他鼓励老年人把他们的年龄看作是生命中的一个丰富多彩的新阶段,而不是生命的结束。第八段末句指出,他的书指导我们如何改变对衰老和成长的看法。由此可见,比尔·托马斯在努力改变人们对衰老的看法,故答案为D)。

47.【定位】由题干中的Why 、different和the nursing home定位到第二至四段。

A)【精析】推理判断题。文章第二段末句提到,养老院压抑而严格管制的环境让他开始思考究竟怎样才能改善院里老年人的生活条件。由第四段可知,在比尔·托马斯采取了一系列措施后,养老院的老人们更快乐了,故答案为A)。

48.【定位】由题干中的 bringing animals and plants into the nursing home定位到第三段第一句。

D)【精析】细节辨认题。定位句指出,尽管当时在养老院饲养动物是违法的,比尔·托马斯医生还是冒险一试。由此可见,他将动物带进养老院是违法的,故答案为D)。

49.【定位】由题干中的persistently advocating定位到第六段。

C)【精析】细节辨认题。定位段提到,托马斯一直在宣扬一个特别的信息:变老并不是一件坏事,故答案为C)。

50.【定位】由题干中的new concept received定位到倒数第二段第一句。

A)【精析】推理判断题。定位句指出,托马斯的方法已经被澳大利亚、日本、加拿大和美国采用,并取得了巨大的成功。由此可见,很多国家都接受了托马斯的新观念,故答案为A)。

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

Research shows that in developed countries,moreaffluent and educated people tend to consume higher-quality diets—including more fruits and vegetables,fish and whole grains.On the contrary, economically disadvantaged people report diets that are nutrient-poor and energy-dense.They are less likelyto have food-purchasing habits that conform to public health recommendations.

These dietary differences are often accompanied by higher rates of obesity and diabetes among lower income people.Thisrelationship between social class and diet quality and health is extensively documented However,the researchdoes not explain why this is the case—a question that has significant implications for designing    effective policies and initiatives to improve diets and prevent chronic diseases.

Public-health initiatives to promote healthy diets often focus on providing nutrition education and recipes (食谱) .These approaches,however,often presume less food literacy (i.e.food knowledge and skills)among low-income people.Are unhealthy diets really the result of poor choices,limited food skills and knowledge?

Research suggests that adults in food-insccure households are just as likely as those in food-secure households to adjust recipes to make them more healthy.They are also just as proficient in food preparation and    cooking skil.There is no indication that increasing food skill or budgeting skills will reduce food insecurity Instead,disadvantaged groups are constrained by their economic,material and social circumstances.For example,low income is the strongest predictor of food insecurity in Canada,where onein eight households    experiences insufficient access to nutritious foods.

It's well-established that food prices are an important determinant of food choice.Low-income households report that they find it difficultto adopt dietary guidelines because food prices are a barrier to improving their diets.

When researchers estimate the cost of dietspeople actuallyeat,higher-quality diets are typicallymore costly.

While thismaybe so,it does not,in itself,prove thathealthydietsare necessarily more expensive or cost-prohibitive.Afterall,notall socioeconomicallydisadvantaged people consume poor diets.

We can easily think of a number of foods and recipes that are both inexpensive and nutritious.The internet is full of recipes for“eating well on a budget.”

51.What can we learn from research on diets in developed countries?

A)Dietary recommendations are not fit for underprivileged people.

B)Pcople from different social groups vary in their dietary habits.

C)People's choice of food depends on their individual taste.

D)Thereisno consensus on what high-qualitydiets are.

52.What does the authorsay is important in formulating policies to improve diets and health?

A)Abetter understanding of the relationship between social class and health.

B)A greater emphasis on studying the cause of obesity and chronic diseases.

C)Prioritizing the provision of better nutrition for lower classes.

D)Designing education programs and initiatives on public health.

53.What does research reveal about adults in food-insecure houscholds?

A)Their eatinghabits need to be changed.

B)Their food literacy has been improving.

C)They do not pay much attention to their food recipes.

D)They do not lack foodknowledge or budgeting skills.

54.What would help improve food security among the disadvantaged groups in Canada? 

A)Teaching them budgeting skills.

B)Increasing their food choices.

C)Enabling them to have more access to nutritious foods.

D)Taking more effective measures to increase food supplies.

55.What docs the author suggest disadvantaged people do to improve their health?

A)Adopt a positive attitude towardsdietary guidelines.

B)Choose diets that are both healthy and affordable.

C)Make sureto purchase healthy foodson the internet.

D)Change their eating habits and consumption patterns.

答案解析

51.【定位】由题干中的research on diets in developed countries定位到首段第一、二句。

B)【精析】推理判断题。定位句指出,研究表明,在发达国家,更富裕和受教育程度更高的人倾向于消费更高质量的饮食,包括更多的水果和蔬菜、鱼和全谷物;相反,经济困难的人饮食低营养、高能量。由此可见,在发达国家,不同社会群体的人饮食习惯不相同,故答案为B)。

52.【定位】由题干中的important和formulating policies toimprove dietsand health定位到第二段第二、三句。

A)【精析】细节辨认题。定位句提到,有充分的文献证明社会阶层与饮食质量和健康之间的关系;然而,这项研究并没有解释为什么会出现这种情况——这个问题对于设计有效的、用来改善饮食和预防慢性疾病的政策和计划具有重要意义。由此可知,在制定改善饮食和健康的政策时,更好地理解社会阶 层与健康之间的关系很重要,故答案为A)。

53.【定位】由题干中的research和adults in food-insecure households定位到第四段第一、二句。

D)【精析】细节辨认题。定位句指出,研究表明,生活在食物不足的家庭中的成年人和生活在食物充足 的家庭的成年人一样,有可能调整食谱,使自己更健康。他们也同样精通食物准备和烹饪技巧。由此可知,生活在食物不足家庭的成年人也具备食物 知识或预算技巧,故答案为D)。

54.【定位】由题干中的improve food security among thedisadvantaged groups in Canada定位到第五段最后一句。

C)【精析】推理判断题。定位句提到,在加拿大,低收入最有可能预示着食物不足的情况,八分之一的家庭无法获得有营养的食物。由此可见,促使加拿大弱势群体食物充足的有效措施是使他们有更多机会获得有营养的食品,故答案为C)。

55.【定位】由题干中的 disadvantaged和improve their health定位到最后两段。

B)【精析】推理判断题。定位段指出,研究并不能证明健康饮食一定更贵或成本高昂;我们可以很容易地想到许多既便宜又有营养的食物和食谱;互联网上到处都是“省钱吃得好”的食谱。由此可推断,弱势群体可以选择便宜且有营养的食物和食谱,故答 案为B)。


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