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六级阅读:偷来火种的巨人普罗米修斯精讲

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2015年06月30日

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  六级阅读:偷来火种的巨人普罗米修斯 Prometheus1

  Zeus2 told Prometheus to teach the mortals3 anything they needed to know in order to live . He was also to teach them the arts, so that they could build beautiful temples to honor the gods. There was, in fact, only one thing he could not teach them.

  “You may give the mortals any gift except the gift of fire . ”Said Zeus.“ Fire belongs to the gods only, and must be kept on Mount Olympus4 . ”

  Prometheus was happy to be of service5 to man. He taught people how to make their own tools and how to build homes for themselves. He taught them how to plant and grow their own food, and how to use animals to make their work easier. He even taught them how to make music and how to paint. But without fire, life on earth was very difficult. Food had to be eaten raw; houses could not be kept warm. Tools had to be of stone , because there was no fire for working metal.

  Athena , daughter of Zeus, had been watching over6 Prometheus and had helped him in his work. Now, because Prometheus was kind and wanted man to be comfortable on earth, he called upon Athena to help him get fire from Mount Olympus. She knew that Zeus was away and promised to lead Prometheus to Mount Olympus by a secret path...

  Just as he arrived Apollo came back from his day’s journey in his chariot7 of the sun. Prometheus lit a torch from the chariot and put the fire in a hollow stalk that he concealed under his cloak. Then he stole away without being seen by any of the gods, and brought his fire to earth.

  When Prometheus lit the first campfire on earth, the people were afraid of it. But they trusted him, and so they came closer and closer and enjoyed the fire’s pleasant warmth and beautiful glow.

  Prometheus knew that he would not have much time before Zeus discovered that he had been disobedient. But he also knew that, powerful as Zeus was, once a god had given a gift it could not be taken away. So he quickly taught the mortals how to use the gift of fire.

  阅读自测

  Ⅰ. Fill in each blank with word or phrase in the p as sage :

  1. Zeus told Prometheus to teach the _______( 人类) anything they needed to know in order to live .

  2. Prometheus was so happy to _______( 帮助) to man that he taught people how to make their own tools and how to build homes for themselves.

  3. Athena , daughter of Zeus, had been _______( 监督) Prometheus and had helped him in his work.

  4. Prometheus knew that he would not have much time before Zeus discovered that he had been _____( 违命) .

  Ⅱ. Question : When the first campfire was lit on earth, how did human react to it?

  参考答案

  Ⅰ. 1. mortals 2. be of service 3 . watching over 4. disobedient

  Ⅱ. When the first campfire was lit on earth, the people were afraid of it. As they trusted Prometheus, they came closer and closer and enjoyed the fire’s pleasant warmth and beautiful glow.

  参考译文

  偷来火种的巨人———普罗米修斯

  宙斯让普罗米修斯传授了人类生存所必需的一切知识。普罗米修斯还必须教人类艺 术, 这样人们就可以建造漂亮的庙宇来向诸神表达敬意了。事实上, 只有一件事情他不能教 人类。

  “ 除了火种, 你可以送给人类任何礼物, ”宙斯说,“ 火种仅为神灵所有, 必须保存在奥 林匹斯山上。”

  普罗米修斯很乐意帮助人类。他教人类如何制造工具和建造房屋, 教他们怎样种植庄 稼及利用牲畜减轻劳动负担。他甚至还教人类如何创作音乐与绘画。但是没有火, 人间的 生活异常艰辛。人们吃的是生食, 住的房屋也不保暖。因为没有火烧制金属工具, 人们只 能用石头做的工具。

  宙斯的女儿雅典娜一直都在监督并在工作中帮助普罗米修斯。由于普罗米修斯很善 良, 而且很想让人类在世间生活得舒适一些, 他就求雅典娜帮他从奥林匹斯山上取来火种。 雅典娜知道宙斯不在, 就答应带普罗米修斯从一条秘密小道上了奥林匹斯山。

  普罗米修斯刚刚到达山上, 阿波罗就行完一天的旅程, 驾着太阳战车归来了。普罗米 修斯从战车上点燃一把火炬, 将火种放进藏在他的披风下面的空心的筒状物里面。就这 样, 谁也没有看到普罗米修斯悄悄地偷走了火种并将其带到了人间。 当普罗米修斯点燃人间的第一堆篝火之时, 人类感到害怕。由于信任普罗米修斯, 他 们渐渐靠近了火堆, 感受着篝火带来的宜人暖意, 观赏着美丽的火焰。 普罗米修斯知道, 宙斯很快就会发现他违抗了命令。可他同样明白, 尽管宙斯威力无 边, 可一旦一件礼物送了出去是不可能收回的。于是, 他很快教会了人类如何使用火种。

  阅读导评

  希腊神话中的普罗米修斯给人类送来了火种, 帮助人类缩短了向文明过渡的苦难斗争 历程, 他被赋予人性, 是人类的好朋友。然而, 这样做的代价则是: 为了人类生存和幸福而 承受无尽的苦难, 可他心甘。就是因为这样, 他渐渐被塑造成一种不屈不挠的英雄形象, 成 为那些为正义而斗争的人们的偶像, 就连马克思也这样称赞他,“普罗米修斯是哲学的日历 中最高尚的圣者和殉道者。”

  阅读导释

  1. 在希腊神话中, 普罗米修斯因盗取天火予人触怒宙斯而受罚, 被锁在高加索山崖上, 遭神鹰折磨。神鹰天天来啄食他的肝脏, 而他的肝脏又总能重新长出来。虽然这种痛苦要持 续三万年, 可是他坚定地面对苦难, 从来不在宙斯面前丧失勇气。因此, 由Prometheus 所派生出来的形容词Promethean 就用来指“ 赋予生命的, 勇于创造的, 富有反抗精神 的”。英国著名诗人雪莱( Shelley, 1792—1822) 的诗剧《解放了的普罗米修斯》( Prometheus Unbound) 就是取希腊神话中的这位神灵为原型的。另有一种说法: 今天, 在奥林匹 克运动会上点燃奥运圣火( Olympic flame) 的惯例也源于普罗米修斯为人类取火的神话。

  2. 宙斯, 希腊神话中众神之神, 相当于罗马神话中的主神Jupiter。他是奥林匹斯山的山神 和人类之父, 主宰一切。下文中的Apollo ( 阿波罗) , 是宙斯之子, 掌管阳光、智慧、预言、 音乐、诗歌、医药, 也是男性美的代表。

  3. 这里是指“ ( 终有一死的) 生物, 人类”, 与神灵相对而言。这个词还可以作形容词使用, 意思是“ 终有一死的, 世间的, 现世的”, 如: Remember that man is mortal. ( 记住人终有一 死。) mortal life ( 现世生活) 。

  4. 奥林匹斯山。这是位于马其顿和希腊东部的色萨利之间的一座高山。在希腊神话中, 负 责处理神灵事物的委员会的13 位成员就住在奥林匹斯山上。他们是: 众神之父宙斯 ( Zeus) , 众神之母赫拉( Hera) , 海神波塞冬( Poseidon) , 冥王哈得斯( Hades) , 太阳神及 音乐诗神阿波罗( Apollo) , 月亮和狩猎女神阿耳特弥斯( Artemis) , 智慧女神雅典娜 ( Athena) , 女灶神赫斯提( Hestia) , 战神阿瑞斯( Ares) , 爱与美神阿佛洛狄特( Aphrodite) , 火神赫菲斯托斯( Hephaestus) , 掌管商业和发明事物的信使海尔墨斯( Hermes) 和 谷物与丰收女神得墨忒耳( Demeter) , 其中哈得斯和得墨忒尔各“ 执政”半年。

  5. 该词组作“ 帮助, 用处, 益处”解, 如: Can I be of any service to you? ( 我能帮什么忙吗?) service 还可以用在词组at one’s service 中, 表示“听人吩咐, 任凭人使用”, 如: If you need any help, I am at your service. ( 如果你需要帮忙, 我当为你效劳。)

  6. watch over 作“ 监督, 保护( 免受危害) , 照管”解, 如: The shepherd watches over his flock. ( 牧羊人照管他的羊群。) 和watch 连用的词很多, 如: watchdog ( 看门狗) ; watch keeper ( 值班者, 放哨者) ; watchman ( 看守人, 警卫员) 。 7. 这个词作“ 战车”解。传说, 太阳神阿波罗白天驾着用黄金和象牙制成的战车, 给广阔无 垠的大地带来光明、生命和仁爱。黄昏时分, 他在遥远的西海结束旅行, 然后乘上金船返 回东方的家中。这样往返一回, 就形成了人间一天。


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