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六级阅读训练10

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2017年06月16日

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   Latino youths need better education for Arizona to take full advantage of the possibilities their exploding population offers. Arizona's fast-growing Latino population offers che state tremendous promise and a challenge. Even more than the aging of the baby boomers. the Latino boom is fundamentally reorienting the state's economic and social structure.

  Immigration and natural increase have added 600,000 young Latino residents to the state's population in the past decade.Half of the population younger than 18 in both Phoenix and Tucson cs now Latino. Within 20 years. Latinos will make up half of the homegrown entry-level labor pool in the state's two largest labor markets.

  What is more, Hispanics are becoming key economic players. Most people don't notice it. but Latinos born in Arizona make up much of their immigrant parents' economic and educational deficits. For example. second-generation Mexican-Americans secure an average of 12 grades of schooling where their parents obtained less than nine. That means they erase 70 percent of their parents' lag behind third-generation non-Hispanic Whites in a single generation.

  A11 of chis hands the state a golden opportunity. At a time when many states will struggle with labor shortages because of modest population growth. Arizona has a priceless chance m build a populous, hardworking and skilled workforce on which to base future prosperity. The problem is that Arizona and its Latino residents may not be able to seize this opportunity. Far too many of Arizona's Latinos drop out of high school or fail to obtain the basic education needed for more advanced study. As a result,educational deficits are holding back many Latinos-and the state as well. To be sure, construction and low-end service jobs continue to absorb tens of thousands of Latino immigrants with little formal education. But over the long tern. most of Arizona's Latino citizens remain ill-prepared to prosper in an increasingly demanding knowledge economy.

  For the reason, the educational uplift of Arizona's huge Latino population must move to the center of the state's agenda. After all, the education deficits of Arizona's Latino population will severely cramp the fortunes of hardworking people if they go unaddressed and could well undercut the state's ability to compete in the new economy. At the entry level, slower growth rates may create more competition for low-skill jobs. displacing Latinos from a significant means of support. At the higher end. shortages of Latinos educationally ready to move up will make it that much harder for knowledge-based companies staff high-skill positions.

  【参考译文】

  如果亚利桑那州要充分利用拉丁裔人口快速增长带来的机会的话,拉丁裔青年需要获得更好的教育。亚利桑那州快速增长的拉丁裔人口为该州展现了美好前景,但也带来了一个挑战,[l]与生育高峰期出生人口的老龄化相比,拉丁裔人口生育高峰对该州经济和社会结构的重新定向更具根本性影响。

  在过去的十年,移民和自然增长使亚利桑那州的人口增加了60万拉丁裔居民。现在菲尼克斯和图森两市l8岁以下的人口有一半是拉丁裔。未来20年在亚利桑那州的两个最大的劳动力市场,拉丁裔将占该州自产初入市场劳动力资源的半数。

  更有甚者,西班牙裔正在成为经济的关键贡献者。[2]大多数人并未注意到,在亚利桑那州出生的拉丁裔弥补了大部分他们的移民父母在经济和教育方面的不足。例如,第二代墨西哥裔美国人肯定能平均上12年学,而他们的父母却只上了不足9年学。这意味着,只用了一代人时间,他们就消除了父母与第三代非西班牙裔白人之间70%的差距。

  所有这种情况为亚利桑那州带来了绝好的机会。在许多州因为人口增长有限而将要穷于应付劳动力不足之时。亚利桑那州得到一个宝贵的机会来建立一支人数众多、工作勤奋和技术熟练的劳动力大军,为未来的繁荣打下基础。问题在于亚利桑那州及其拉丁裔居民未必能抓住这个机会。[3]因为亚利桑那州有太多的拉丁裔从高中辍学或未能获得深造所需要的基础教育。结果教育不足拖了许多拉丁裔的后腿——也拖了亚利桑那州的后腿。固然,建筑业和低级服务业会继续吸引成千上万未受过充分正式教育的拉丁裔移民,[5]但从长远来看,大多数拉丁裔公民仍然对在要求越来越高的知识经济中取得成功缺乏准备。

  [4]为此,提升亚利桑那州大量拉丁裔人口的教育水平必须提到州议事日程的中心位置。毕竟,如果亚利桑那州的拉丁裔人口受教育不足问题仍然得不到重视的话,将会严重限制工作勤奋的人取得成功的机会,也会大大削弱亚利桑那州在新经济情况下的竞争力。从低处来说,缓慢的增长率可能导致低技术要求工作岗位竞争更激烈。而把拉丁裔人从重要的劳动力生力军中排挤出去。[5]而从高处来说,由于缺乏为适应工作升迁而获得充分教育的拉丁裔,以致以知识为基础的公司员工高技术要求岗位更难得到补充。

  【测试题】

  1. The Latino population is changing Arizona's__________________.

  A) aging problem B) educational system

  C) economic structure D) financial deficits

  2. What can be inferred from the third paragraph?

  A) The Latino population in Arizona is made up of Hispanics and Mexican-Americans.

  B) The first-generation Latinos are immigrants instead of being born in America.

  C) 70 percent of the first-generation Latinos had less schooling than nine years.

  D) The educational system used to be in favor of the non-Hispanic Whites.

  3. "Educational deficits" (Line 7. Para. 4) most probably means that______________.

  A) the state did not put much money into education

  B) many Latinos are too poor to obtain education

  C) education is not a profitable enterprise

  D) many Latinos are not well-educated

  4. According to the author. Arizona should give highest priority to________________.

  A) controlling the Latino population

  B) enhancing the educational level of the Latino population

  C) improving the knowledge-based economy

  D) building the Latino population into hardworking and skilled workforce

  5. It is implied that in the long run most Latinos in Arizona will_______________.

  A) be jobless B) be badly-paid

  C) do low-skill jobs D) do high-skill jobs

  【选项翻译与答案详解】

  1.拉丁裔人口改变了亚利桑那的___________________。

  A) 人口老龄化问题 B) 教育体系

  C) 经济结构 D)财政赤字

  [C]原文首段末句中的reorienting与changing为近义同,而该句表明拉丁裔人口在两方面改变着亚利桑那州,选项C就是这两方面的其中一个。选项A中的aging,选项B中的educational和选项D中的deficits都在文中出现,但都与题干的要求无关。

  2.我们可以从第三段推断出哪一个看法?

  A) 亚利桑那的拉丁裔人口是由西班牙裔和墨西哥裔美国人所组成。

  B) 第一代的拉丁裔是移民而不是在美国土生土长的。

  C) 第一代的拉丁裔中有70%只受过不到9年的教育。

  D) 教育体系过去只对非西班牙裔的白人有利。

  [B]第3段第3句表明第二代墨西哥裔美国人比他们的父母获得更好的教育。而这一句是为了举例说明第2句提到的在Arizona出生的拉丁裔和他们的移民父母之间的区别,由此可见,第2句提到的immigrant parents就是第一代的拉丁裔美国人,immigrant一词表明他们并非在美国出生,因此选项B为正确的推断。

  3.“教育赤字”(第4段第7行)最可能的意思是__________________。

  A) 州政府没有在教育上投入大量资金 B)许多拉丁裔穷得无法受教育

  C) 教育不是一个能够盈利的产业 D)许多拉丁裔都没有受过良好的教育

  [D]第4段第5句开头的As a result表明本句与上一句形成因果关系,由此可见。本句中的educational deficits与上一句提到的拉丁裔美国人受教育程度较低有关,由此可推断,educational deficits指的应该是受教育不足。因此.选项D为正确的理解。

  4.作者认为,亚利桑那应该最关注______________。

  A) 控制拉丁裔人口

  B) 提高拉丁裔人口的教育水平

  C) 改善知识经济

  D) 将拉丁裔人口发展成努力工作的技术性劳动力

  [B]第5段首句中的move to the cemnter为题干中give highest priority的同义替换,选项B与原文该句的主语educational uplift也意思一致,因此选项B为本题答案。选项A在文中并无提及,选项C和D都在文中提到,但不符合题意,与highest priority无关。

  5.文章暗示,从长远来看,亚利桑那大部分的拉丁裔人口将会_______________。

  A) 失业 B)工资很低

  C) 做低技能的工作 D) 做高技能的工作

  [C]第4段末句中的ill-prepared和第5段末句中的shortages of Latinos educationally ready都表明从长远来看,拉丁裔美国人受的教育仍然保持较低的水平,由此可推断,他们只能做一些技术要求不高的工作,所以选项C为本题答案。


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