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2016年公共英语三级考试经典语法讲解之it 与there be的用法

所属教程:公共英语三级

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zhaocongcong

2016年07月11日

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  it 与there be的用法

  I.要点

  1、it的用法

  (1)用作人称代词,代替前文提到的无生命的事物,动植物、婴儿及指示代词this, that,如,

  I have a new pen. It is beautiful.

  The Browns have a new baby. It's cute.

  (2)用来表示时间、天气、距离等,如,It's twelve o'clock now.

  It's fine today.

  (3)用作引导词,代替由不定式,ing形式或从句表示的真正的主语或宾语,如,

  It's no good telling him that.

  It's necessary for you to do so.

  (4)用在强调结构中,构成强调句式:It is/was +被强调部分+that/who/whom +句子其余部分,可强调除谓语以外的句子其他成分,如,

  It was this morning that I saw him in the street.

  It was I who saw him in the street this morning.

  It was in the street that I saw him this morning.

  It was him whom I saw in the street this morning.

  2、there be句型

  英语表示某时某处或某物时,常用there be句型,这是一种倒装结构,如,

  There are a lot of students playing on the ground.

  There is going to be a test this afternoon.

  当主语有两个或两个以上时,动词be常和最近的那个主语取得一致,如,

  There is a pen and three pencils in the pencil-box.

  There isn't a desk, a bench and three chairs in the room.

  There are lots of people like it, aren't there?

  there be句型,谓语动词除be之外,还可用其他表示存在,位置移动等意义的不及物动词或词组,如exist, stand, lie, enter, come, happen to be, appear to be等,如,

  There stands a house at the foot of the hill.

  there be句型表示"存在"而have表"有"、"拥有",所以there be中 be不能换成have,但当have表示事物的特征时,可用"主语+have"结构替换there be 句型,如:

  There are five doors in the house.

  The house has five doors.

  there be 的其它句型:

  1、There must be a meeting in the office.

  2、There have been great changes since 1979.

  3、There being no bus, we had to walk home.

  I. 例题

  例1 ____ that he went to sleep.

  A It was until midnight B That was until midnight

  C It was not until midnight D That was not until midnight

  解析:该题答案为C。强调until结构时,要将否定词not移到until前。又如:He didn't leave until twelve 改为It was not until twelve that he left.

  例2 There are a lot of students ____ in the class room.

  A talk B talking C talked D to talk

  解析:该题正确答案为B。 There be句型为倒装句,可换为A lot of students are talking in the class room. 又如:There is a lot of noise heard out in the street.


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