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2018年公共英语五级阅读理解模拟题(3)

所属教程:备考辅导

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2018年06月04日

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  Text 3

  Before a big exam, a sound night's sleep will do you better than poring over textbooks. That, at least, is thefolk wisdom. And science, in the form of behavioral psychology, supports that wisdom. But such behavioral studiescannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory. One says that sleep is whenpermanent memories form. The other says that they are actually formed during the day, but then "edited" at night,to flush away what is superfluous.

  To tell the difference, it is necessary to look into the brain of a sleeping person, and that is hard. But after adecade of painstaking work, a team led by Pierre Maquet at Liege University in Belgium has managed to do it. Theparticular stage of sleep in which the Belgian group is interested is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when brainand body are active, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the eyes move back and forth behind the eyelids as i!watching a movie, and brainwave traces resemble those of wakefulness. It is during this period of sleep that peopleare most likely to relive events of the previous day in dreams.

  Dr. Maquet used an electronic device called PET to study the brains of people as they practiced a task duringthe day, and as they slept during the following night. The task required them to press a button as fast as possible, inresponse to a light coming on in one of six positions. As they learnt how to do this, their response times got faster.What they did not know was that the appearance of the lights sometimes followed a pattern--what is referred to as"artificial grammar". Yet the reductions in response time showed that they learnt faster when the pattern was presen!than when there was not.

  What is more, those with more to learn ( i. e. the "grammar", as well as the mechanical task of pushing thebutton) have more active brains. The "editing" theory would not predict that, since the number of irrelevant stimuliwould be the same in each case. And to eliminate any doubts that the experimental subjects were learning as opposedto unlearning, their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.

  The team, therefore, concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactiva-tion during REM sleep, particularly if the brain detects an inherent structure in the material being learnt. So now, onthe eve of that crucial test, maths students can sleep soundly in the knowledge that what they will remember the nextday are the basic rules of algebra and not the incoherent talk from the radio next door.

  61. Researchers in behavioral psychology are divided with regard to__________

  [A] how dreams are modified in their courses

  [B] the difference between sleep and wakefulness

  [C] why sleep is of great benefit to memory

  [D] the functions of a good night' s sleep

  62. As manifested in the experimental study, rapid eye movement is characterized by__________

  [A] intensely active bralnwave traces

  [B] subjects' quicker response times

  [C] complicated memory patterns

  [D] revival of events in the previous day

  63. By referring to the artificial grammar, the author intends to show__________

  [A] its significance in the study

  [B] an inherent pattern being learnt

  [C] its resemblance to the lights

  [D] the importance of a night' s sleep

  64. tn their study, researchers led by Pierre Maquet took advantage of the technique of__________

  [A] exposing a long-held folk wisdom

  [B] clarifying the predictions on dreams

  [C] making contrasts and comparisons

  [D] correlating effects with their causes

  65. What advice might Maquet give to those who have a crucial test the next day?

  [A] Memorizing grammar with great efforts.

  [B] Study textbooks with close attention.

  [C] Have their brain images recorded.

  [D] Enjoy their sleep at night soundly.

  Text 3

  答案及解析

  61.C【解析】文中第一段提到“But such behavioral studies cannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory.”所以他们对为什么睡眠对记忆有好处持有不同的观点,故应选C。

  62.A【解析】第二段中指出“…when brain and body are active”,大脑积极运转是眼珠快速转动的主要特征,且在第三、四段又再次说明。选项B“被研究者更快的反应速度”,选项C“复杂的记忆模式”和选项D“前一天事件的重现”都不是眼球快速运动的主要特征。故应选A。

  63.B【解析】原文的第三段最后“What they did not know…followed a pattern-what is referred to as “artificial grammar”.Yet the reductions in response time showed that…”说明了这种内在模式,也就是“artificial grantor”,对于记忆的重要性。故应选B。

  64.C【解析】这个题考察的是对后面几段的归纳。首先在第三段开始“Dr.Maquet used all electronic device called PET…they practiced a task during the day,and as they slept during the following night.”这是一种对比性的研究方法。后来的第四段最后“…their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.”也采用了对比的分析研究,故应选C。

  65.D【解析】这是一个通篇的中心归纳的考察题。文章一开始就指出“Before a big exam.a sound night’s sleep will do you better than poring over textbooks.”意思是在晚上好好的睡觉对记忆是有好处的。最后作者又归纳了研究的结果,“…concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactivation during REM sleep….”也说明结构性知识在REM睡眠中是可以巩固的。故应选D。


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