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中考语法句型十、其他句型

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2022年01月14日

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十、其他句型

1.祈使句句型

祈使句是表示请求、命令、劝告、祝愿或建议的句子。祈使句通常以动词原形开头;祈使句的否定式在动词原形前加Don't;祈使句的反意疑问句,除Let's开头的用shall we外,其他的祈使句的反意疑问句都用will you构成反意疑问句。

Go and ask the teacher.去问问老师。

Come earlier next time.下次早点来。

Have a good time.愿你玩得开心。

Let's go and help her.咱们过去帮助她吧。

Don't speak so loud.别这么大声说话。

Don't walk on the grass.不要在草坪上走。

Turn on the TV,will you?把电视打开,好吗?

Tell me the truth,will you?告诉我实话,好吗?

Let's go swimming together,shall we?我们一起去游泳好吗?

Let's all sit under this tree,shall we?咱们都坐在这棵树下,好不好?

2.动词不定式作主语句型

①动词不定式作主语,常常用it作形式主语,放在句子开头,而真正主语动词不定式短语放在句末,汉语翻译时仍把动词不定式翻译在前,it无实际意义故无需翻译。

It is necessary to study hard.

to study hard is necessary.努力学习是有必要的。

It is a good habit to get up early.

to get up early is a good habit.早起床是一个好习惯。

It's my duty to help you improve English.帮助你们提高英语水平是我的职责。

to help you improve English is my duty.

②不定式作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

To learn English well is not easy.学好英语是不容易的。

To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。

To get up early is necessary.早起是必要的。

3.It seems that ...句型

It seems that ...意为“看起来好像……;似乎……”。该句型通常有两种时态形式,即一般现在时态形式It seems that ...和一般过去时态形式It seemed that ...。It seems that ...,that后从句的时态通常为现在时态,包括一般现在时、一般将来时、现在进行时和现在完成时;It seemed that ...,that后从句的时态通常为过去时态,包括一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时和过去完成时。这两种结构形式在时态上要统一。

It seems that he likes his new job.他看起来很喜欢他的新工作。

It seems that no one knows what has happened in the park.

看起来好像没有人知道在公园里发生了什么事。

It seemed that the birds were going to win.看起来好像鸟儿们要获胜。

It seemed that no one knew what had happened.似乎无人知道发生了什么事。

4.had better句型

had better后用动词原形,意为“最好干某事”;had better的否定式在had better后直接加not,had better not do sth.意为“最好不要干某事”。had better中的had可以和前面的代词缩写为“-d”形式。

You'd better go and ask your teacher.你最好去问问你的老师。

You'd better practice English in the morning every day.你最好每天早上练习英语。

He'd better write a letter to the teacher.他最好给老师写封信。

You'd better not spend more time on this kind of game.

你最好不要在这种游戏上花更多的时间。

We had better not go there.我们最好不要去那里。

You'd better not smoke in the sitting room.你最好不要在客厅吸烟。

5.I don't think that ...句型

I don't think that ...是一个常见的否定转移句型,意为“我认为……不”。

①在I think+that从句结构中,其否定形式在主句,而汉语翻译在从句,这种情况被称为否定转移。如:

I don't think they will work out the math problem.我认为他们算不出那道数学题。

I don't think he is a teacher.我认为他不是个老师。

I don't think that they will give up the chance of being volunteers.

我认为他们不会放弃这次做志愿者的机会。

I don't think that he is reading now.我认为他现在不是在看书。

②在含有I think (believe,suppose ...)that ...结构的句子中,其反意疑问句的肯定与否定形式看主句,反意疑问部分的主谓形式,须与从句的主语、谓语保持一致。如:

I don't think he will come,will he?我认为他不会来,对吗?

I don't think he got up very early that morning,did he?

我认为那天早上他起床不是很早,是吗?

6.It takes sb.some time to do sth.句型

It takes sb.some time to do sth.意为“干某事需要某人多长时间”。

It will take the workers two years to build the bridge.建造那座桥需要工人们花两年的时间。

It took her 3 months to do this experiment.做这个实验花了她三个月的时间。

注意:

take,spend,cost都表示“花费”时间或金钱。

●spend表示“花费”时,宾语通常是时间、金钱等,句子的主语必须是人,常用的句型有spend ...on和spend ...(in)doing。如:

She spends a lot of money on books.她花很多钱买书。

She spent the whole evening (in)reading.她花了整个晚上的时间来读书。

●cost表示“花费”时既可以指花费时间,也可以指花费金钱,句子的主语通常是物或事,只有主动式,没有被动式。如:

The pen cost me ten yuan.这只钢笔花了我十元钱。

The job cost a lot of time.那项工作花了很多的时间。

●take常常用来花费时间,句子的主语常常是it作形式主语放在句首,真正主语动词不定式放在句末。如:

It took 100,000 men twenty years to build the Great Pyramid.

建造这座大金字塔花了十万人二十年的时间。

It takes me three hours to go there.去那儿我需要三个小时。

7.It's time for sb.to do sth.句型

It's time for sb.to do sth.意为“某人该干某事了;是某人干某事的时间了”

It's time句型有三种形式:

①It's time to do sth.该干某事了;是干某事的时间了。如:

It's time to have supper.该吃晚饭了(是吃晚饭的时间了)。

②It's time for sth.该做某事了;是做某事的时间了。如:

It's time for school.该上学了(是上学的时间了)。

③It's time for sb.to do sth.某人该干某事了;是某人干某事的时间了。如:

It's time for us to go home.我们该回家了(是我们回家的时间了)。

It's time for us to borrow books from the library.是我们从图书馆借书的时间了。

It's time for Tom to take medicine.汤姆该吃药了。

8.too ...to ...句型

too ...to ...意为“太……而不能……”。其中too是副词,后跟形容词或副词;to是动词不定式符号,后跟动词原形。

The box is too heavy for me to move.那箱子太重,我搬不动。

The boy is too young to go to school.这男孩年龄太小,不能上学。

The hat is too large to wear.这帽子太大,没法戴。

He walks too slowly to get there on time.他走得太慢,不能按时到达那儿。

注意:

too ...to结构中有时加上一个for sb./sth.,以提示动词不定式的逻辑主语,在这个句型中,句子主语和不定式的宾语是指同一个事物,则宾语不能重复,必须省掉。如:

这个箱子太重,我搬不动。

误:This box is too heavy for me to carry it.

正:This box is too heavy for me to carry.

这辆小汽车太贵,他买不起。

误:The car is too expensive for him to buy it.

正:The car is too expensive for him to buy.

9.used to句型

used to意为“过去常常干某事”,指过去经常性的动作或存在的状态,现在已不再那样,侧重与现在的比较;to后用动词原形。used to be意为“过去常常是(存在)……”;used to do意为“过去常常干某事”。

She used to spend a lot of time playing computer games.

她过去常常花大量的时间玩电脑游戏。

There used to be a hospital here.过去这里有一家医院。

The woman used to help the others in troubles.那妇女过去常常帮助有困难的人。

He used to play basketball after school.他过去放学后常常打篮球。

10.be used to句型

be used to意为“已习惯于干某事”,指某动作过去不常做而现在已习惯做了,强调目前的情况。to后接名词或动名词。如:

The teacher is used to going to bed late in the evening.老师已习惯于晚上晚睡觉。

I am used to getting up early.我已经习惯于早起床了。

They are used to living in China.他们已习惯于住在中国了。

11.So I do句型

So I do结构主要用于加强语气,意为“的确如此、确实如此”,表示后者赞同前者的话或意见,只是进一步强调并重复前句所述的内容。前后句的主语指的是同一个人或物。该结构中的助动词do根据上句的情况也可换成is,am,are,was,were,does,did,can,could等。注意,这里不用倒装语序。如:

— He has done a good job.他干得不错。

— So he has.他的确干得不错。

— He will speak at the meeting tomorrow.他明天将在会上发言。

— So he will.确实如此。

— He went to see his friend yesterday.他昨天去看朋友了。

— So he did.的确如此。

— John smokes a lot.约翰吸烟吸得很厉害。

— So he does.他确实是这样。

12.“have+名词+过去分词”句型

“have+名词(或代词)+过去分词”是一个常用句型,意为“请人干某事,让人干某事”。所表示的动作通常由别人来完成,但又没有说出具体的人。

Your mobile phone doesn't work.You'd better have it repaired.

你的手机坏了,你最好请人修一下。

I have my hair cut once a month.我一个月请人理一次发。

They had their desks repaired.他们请人修理了课桌。

13.much too与too much句型

much too意为“太……”,其后跟形容词或副词;too much意为“太多”,其后跟不可数名词。

These shoes are much too small for me.这鞋我穿太小了。

He does his work much too carefully.他工作太过谨慎。

I'm sorry I have to go now.I've got too much (=too much work)to do at home.

真抱歉,我得走了。我家里要干的事太多。

注意:

too many表示“太多”时,其后跟可数名词复数。

There were too many people and too much noise in the hall that I could not hear you.大厅里人太多,太喧哗,我听不见你的话。

【中考速递】

1.[江苏南京中考考题] — Excuse me,but can you tell me where the nearest bank is?

— Just _____ going for two more blocks and you'll see it.

A.keep B.to keep C.keeping D.keeps

2.[湖南永州中考考题] David,_____ make trouble at school.

A.can't B.don't C.doesn't

3.[湖南益阳中考考题] It's necessary for you _____ the classroom clean,class.

A.keep B.keeping C.to keep

4.[四川乐山中考考题] You'd better _____ too much chocolate,or you'll get fat fast.

A.not to eat B.not eat C.not eating

5.[广东汕尾中考考题] I don't think the newly directed film by Zhao Wei is as interesting as people say,_____?

A.do I B.don't I C.is it D.isn't it

6.[湖北黄石中考考题] Mount Xiaolei is not far away from here,but it will still take us a few hours _____ there by bike.

A.getting B.to getCgot D.get

7.[黑龙江齐齐哈尔中考考题] She is _____ poor _____ afford the expensive suit.

A.so,that B.enough,to C.too,to

8.[江苏泰州中考考题] Diana used to _____ to work,but now she is used to _____ because the road is crowded and she wants to keep fit.

A.drive;walking B.drive;walk

C.driving;walk D.driving;walking

9.[山东泰安中考考题] — Tai'an is a really comfortable city to live in.

— _____,and it's world-famous for Mount Tai.

A.So it is B.So is it C.So it does D.So does it

10.[四川内江中考考题] Bad Luck.The film star had her leg _____ while playing a part in the film.

A.to break B.breaking C.break D.broken

【答案点拨】

1.答案:A 句意:“打扰了,你能告诉我最近的银行在哪里吗?”“继续走两个街区,你就会看到它。”由句意可知这里是一个祈使句,祈使句以动词的原形开头,故选A。

2.答案:B 句意:大卫,不要在学校惹麻烦。由句意可知这是一个否定的祈使句,祈使句的否定形式是在祈使句前加don't,故选B。

3.答案:C 句意:同学们,对你们来说保持教室的整洁是很有必要的。由句意可知这里考查动词不定式作主语,用it作形式主语,真正主语动词不定式短语放在后面,故选C。

4.答案:B 句意为:你最好不要吃巧克力,否则你会很快变胖。had better后用动词原形,否定式为had better not+动词原形,故选B。

5.答案:C 句意:“我认为由赵薇导演的新电影并没有跟人们说的一样有趣,是不是?”主句谓语为think的宾语从句,其反意疑问句的肯定与否定要根据主句而定,主句否定式,反意疑问句部分要用肯定式;反意疑问句的助动词及代词主语要根据从句的主语和谓语而定,从句主语film表示物用it,谓语为is,故选C。

6.答案:B 句意:小雷山离这儿不远,可是骑自行车到那儿仍然要花费我们几个小时。这里考查句型It takes sb.some time to do sth.(做某事花费某人多长时间),it作形式主语,后面的动词不定式作真正的主语,故选B。

7.答案:C 句意:她太穷而买不起这套昂贵的西服。由句意可知这里考查表示“太……而不能……”的too ...to ...句型,故选C。

8.答案:A 句意:黛安娜过去常开车上班,但现在她习惯步行了,因为道路很拥挤,她也想保持身体健康。used to表示“过去常常”,后跟动词原形;be used to后跟动名词,表示“已习惯做某事。”故选A。

9.答案:A 句意:“泰安确实是一个宜居的舒适城市。”“的确如此,它以泰山而闻名世界。”表示“确实如此”用so it is句型,故选A。

10.答案:D 句意:真不幸!这个电影明星在演这部电影时弄断了腿。这里考查“have+名词+过去分词”句型,故选D。


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